Drivers of Industrialisation: Intersectoral Evidence from the Low Countries

 

when 2017
who Robin Philips
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Working Papers
what paper Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century.
language English

involved project member(s)

Robin Philips Peter Foldvari Bas van Leeuwen
   

abstract

In this paper, we trace the causes of regional industrial development in the nineteenth century Low Countries by disentangling the complex relationship between industrialisation, technological progress and human capital formation. We use sectoral differences in the application of technology and human capital as the central elements to explain the rise in employment in the manufacturing sector during the nineteenth century, and our findings suggest a re-interpretation of the deskilling debate. To account for differences among manufacturing sectors, we use population and industrial census data, subdivided according to their present-day manufacturing sector equivalents of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Instrumental variable regression analysis revealed that employment in the manufacturing sector was influenced by so-called upper- tail knowledge and not by average educational levels, providing empirical proof of a so-called deskilling industrialisation process. However, we find notable differences between manufacturing sectors. The textiles and clothing sectors show few agglomeration effects and limited use of steam-powered engines, and average education levels cannot adequately explain regional industrialisation. In contrast, the location of the fast- growing and innovative machinery-manufacturing sector was more influenced by technology and the availability of human capital, particularly upper-tail knowledge captured by secondary school attendance rates.

keywords
industrialization; deskilling; human capital; steam engine; labour; economic growth

citation format

MLA
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century” (2017). MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
APA
Philips, R., Foldvari, P., and Van Leeuwen, B. (2017). Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Chicago
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Harvard
Philips, R., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Vancouver
Philips, R., Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.

Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

Australian Economic History Review
when 2016
who Yi Xu
Zhihong Shi
Bas van Leeuwen
Yuping Ni
Zipeng Zhang
Ye Ma
what journal Australian Economic History Review
what paper Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi Zhang Zipeng
     

abstract

In recent decades, national income has become increasingly important as a measure of a nation’s economic health. In this study, we used a wide array of primary and secondary sources to arrive at values of the Chinese per capita gross domestic product during the period of 1661–1933. We found a persistent decline in the per capita gross domestic product between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, followed by a period of stagnation. This pattern, which shows up in many Asian countries, with the exception of Japan, provides a basis for improving our understanding of the patterns of global economic convergence and divergence.

keywords

China; growth; national income; Qing dynasty

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aehr.12127/full

citation format

MLA Xu, Yi et al. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661–1933.” Australian Economic History Review, vol 57, no. 3, 2016, pp. 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
APA Xu, Y., Shi, Z., van Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., & Ma, Y. (2016). Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), 368–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aehr.12127
Chicago Xu, Yi, Zhihong Shi, Bas van Leeuwen, Yuping Ni, Zipeng Zhang, and Ye Ma. 2016. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661-1933”. Australian Economic History Review 57 (3): 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
Harvard
Xu, Y., Shi, Z., Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z. and Ma, Y., 2017. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), pp.368-393.
Vancouver Xu Y, Shi Z, Leeuwen B, Ni Y, Zhang Z, Ma Y. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review. 2017 Nov 1;57(3):368-93.

 

Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends

Economic History of Developing Regions

when 2017
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
Li Jieli
what journal Economic History of Developing Regions
what paper Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli

abstract

In recent decades it has been debated whether China’s growth performance is primarily driven by capital accumulation (more inputs) or rather by an increase in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth (better technology and institutions). The answer to this question may offer a glimpse into the future trends of China’s economic growth. If the perspiration factors are dominant, one should expect a slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy in accordance with the traditional Solow model. If, however, TFP growth drives per capita GDP growth, one can expect a strong convergence of China toward the technological frontier. In this paper we combine historical, long-term analysis with quantitative methods to find out whether the effect of (both human- and physical) capital and TFP on growth changed over the last 90 years. While partly relying on existing data, lack of information required us to estimate a new dataset on human capital for the provinces of China between 1922 and 2010 which allows us to decompose the observed economic growth into accumulation driven and TFP driven parts. We find that general technological development improved steadily over the course of the 1990s and 2000s.

keywords

Chinaeconomic developmenthuman capitaltechnology


citation format

MLA van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32.1 (2017): 1-36.
APA
van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J., & Foldvari, P. (2017). Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), 1-36.
Chicago van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32, no. 1 (2017): 1-36.
Harvard van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J. and Foldvari, P., 2017. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), pp.1-36.
Vancouver van Leeuwen B, van Leeuwen-Li J, Foldvari P. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions. 2017 Jan 2;32(1):1-36.

China in World Industrialization

when 2016
who Yi Xu

Bas van Leeuwen

what journal China Economist
what paper China in World Industrialization
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

abstract

Combining the sectoral accounting method of the System of National Accounts(SNA) with new statistical materials from the United Nations, as well as historical research into various countries around the world, this paper arrives at an estimate of value added of Chinese and world industries between 1850 and 2012. In doing so, we not only modify past work by Paul Bairoch, but also arrive at significantly different conclusions about China’s position in world industrialization. 

keywords

China, industrialization, value added, world

link to paper page of the journal website

http://www.chinaeconomist.com/index.php/2017/05/22/china-in-world-industrialization/

citation format

MLA Xu, Y., and Bas van Leeuwen. “China in World Industrialization.” China Economist 11.6 (2016): 98-109.
APA Xu, Y., & van Leeuwen, B. (2016). China in World Industrialization. China Economist, 11(6), 98-109.
Chicago Xu, Y., and Bas van Leeuwen. “China in World Industrialization.” China Economist 11, no. 6 (2016): 98-109.
Harvard Xu, Y. and van Leeuwen, B., 2016. China in World Industrialization. China Economist, 11(6), pp.98-109.
Vancouver Xu Y, van Leeuwen B. China in World Industrialization. China Economist. 2016;11(6):98-109.

Calculation China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview

when 2016
who Yuping Ni
Yi Xu
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal Social Sciences in China (English version)
what paper Calculation China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

abstract

Since the 1990s, thanks to the concerted efforts of domestic and international scholars, the research on China’s historical GDP that began in the 1930s has received widespread attention, and is becoming a widely discussed issue at the forefront of research on world economic history. At the same time, several scholars at home and abroad have also voiced a call for more theoretical and empirical reflection within this line of research. Diversification of methods, systematic reconstruction of historical data, and international comparisons represent three emerging trends in future research on this subject. By encouraging and leading these trends, Chinese scholars can assume a greater role in international research on economic history.

keywords

China, historical GDP, economic aggregate, calculation

link to paper page of the journal website

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02529203.2016.1241494

citation format

MLA Yuping, Ni, Xu Yi, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview.” Social Sciences in China 37.4 (2016): 56-75.
APA  Yuping, N., Yi, X., & van Leeuwen, B. (2016). Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China, 37(4), 56-75.
Chicago  Yuping, Ni, Xu Yi, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview.” Social Sciences in China 37, no. 4 (2016): 56-75.
Harvard  Yuping, N., Yi, X. and van Leeuwen, B., 2016. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China, 37(4), pp.56-75.
Vancouver  Yuping N, Yi X, van Leeuwen B. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China. 2016 Oct 1;37(4):56-75.

Calculation China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview

when 2015
who Yuping Ni
Yi Xu
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学)
what paper Calculation China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview (中国历史时期经济总量估值研究——以GDP的测算为中心)
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

abstract

Since the 1990s, thanks to the concerted efforts of domestic and international scholars, the research on China’s historical GDP that began in the 1930s has received widespread attention, and is becoming a widely discussed issue at the forefront of research on world economic history. At the same time, several scholars at home and abroad have also voiced a call for more theoretical and empirical reflection within this line of research. Diversification of methods, systematic reconstruction of historical data, and international comparisons represent three emerging trends in future research on this subject. By encouraging and leading these trends, Chinese scholars can assume a greater role in international research on economic history.

keywords

China, historical GDP, economic aggregate, calculation

link to paper page of the journal website

CNKI

citation format

MLA Yuping, Ni, Xu Yi, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview.” Social Sciences in China 5(2015): 187-202
APA Yuping, N., Yi, X., & van Leeuwen, B. (2015). Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China, (5), 187-202.
Chicago Yuping, Ni, Xu Yi, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview.” Social Sciences in China no. 5 (2015): 187-202.
Harvard Yuping, N., Yi, X. and van Leeuwen, B., 2015. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China, (5), pp.187-202.
Vancouver Yuping N, Yi X, van Leeuwen B. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview. Social Sciences in China. 2015 May 10;(5):187-202.