Real wages since 1820

when 2014
who Pim de Zwart
Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Real wages since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where Paris
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

 

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

 

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Real wages since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 73-86). Paris: OECD Publishing.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Education since 1820

when 2014
who Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Education since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where Paris
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

 

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

 

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Education since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 87-100). Paris: OECD Publishing.
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Vancouver

“边缘”与“中国”之间:明人眼中的广西——读万历《广西通志·杨芳序》有感

when 2011
who Xu Yi
what journal Journal of Guangxi Normal University(Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition) (广西师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版))
what paper “边缘”与“中国”之间:明人眼中的广西——读万历《广西通志·杨芳序》有感
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

1598年,当明王朝老态龙钟地迈入它的晚期之时,一位名唤杨芳的官员由北京出发,一路行来,进入广西省城桂林。作为新任广西巡抚,杨芳下车伊始,即察访斯土,熟稔民情。在杨芳履任的第二年(1599年),详志广西全省情况的(万历)《广西通志》编纂完毕,编纂者循例将此书呈递给巡抚杨芳,并恭乞新任巡抚作序。藉此序言,杨芳记下了在初践斯土之时对广西的看法

keywords

万历,明王朝,广西

 

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The Likin System and Local Society in Late Qing Shanghai——On Background of Xianfeng Period

when 2007
who Xu Yi
what journal Journal of Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中国社会科学院研究生院学报)
what paper The Likin System and Local Society in Late Qing Shanghai——On Background of Xianfeng Period (晚清上海的厘金制度与地方社会——以咸丰朝为背景)
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

The Likin of Shanghai accounted for the majority of that of Jiangsu.In Xianfeng period,the Likin system of Shanghai experienced the phases of establishment and scale expansion,and accordingly consolidated its historical position.On the other hand,the establishment and expansion of Likin system in Shanghai also closely related to different interest groups of the local society.The complicated relationships between the government,Chinese merchants,and foreign merchants interacted with the transformation of Likin system,and jointly constituted the abundant picture scroll of the early history of Likin in Shanghai.

keywords

Shanghai; Likin system; local society

 

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晚清捐税综论——以1851—1894年为背景

when 2009
who Xu Yi
what journal Researches in Chinese Economic History (中国经济史研究)
what paper 晚清捐税综论——以1851—1894年为背景
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

咸同军兴至甲午战前,各省以”捐”的名目开征了各色杂税,构成了晚清除厘金和海关税之外的另一类新税。为此,在清人眼里,”捐”的意义亦发生前所未有的变化,即由过去的”捐输”或”捐赠”等民间行为变成政府一种新税的代名词。从新捐税的种类来源、征管方式以及收支规模来看,它已经独立地支撑起以各省的道府州县为单位的地方财政运作。因此,随着新捐税的滥觞,一个由中央、各省和各道府州县构成的三级财政体系,在甲午之前就已初具规模。 

keywords

晚清; 财政; 捐税;

 

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清前期地方政府对科举经费的管理与监督

when 2010
who Xu Yi
what journal Education and Examinations (教育与考试)
what paper 清前期地方政府对科举经费的管理与监督
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

在清代,除了中央政府直接管理的科举经费之外,还下放一定的权力让地方政府管理部分科举经费。具体而言,一方面地方政府采取效率制度和宾兴礼仪两种型式管理奏销的科举经费;另一方面又通过一系列的制度创新和组织创新尽可能地将官员、士绅和商人等社会各阶层手中的闲散资金转变为外销科举经费,最大限度地弥补了奏销科举经费在维护科举制运作过程中的不足。 

keywords

清前期,地方政府,科举经费,管理,监督

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有关晚清厘金制度的探讨

when 2008
who Xu Yi
Liu Xinli
what journal Theoretical Exploration (理论探索)
what paper 有关晚清厘金制度的探讨
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

作为政府的一种新税收,厘金制度的创建与推行对清后期的财政体制及收入结构乃至晚清政局产生了深远影响。但是,目前关于其创建方式、运作体系以及推行状况等问题的探讨似显不足。为此,通过挖掘各种新史料,一方面可以进一步理清创建方式与运作体系等与厘金制度创建相关的问题,另一方面亦可纠正前人在研究厘金制度推行上的一些误差。

keywords

厘金制度,创建方式,运作体系,推行状况

 

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晚清财政:1851-1894

when 2008
who Shi Zhihong
Xu Yi
what book 晚清财政:1851-1894
publisher Shanghai University of Finance and Economics Press (上海财经大学出版社)
where Shanghai
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

Book Description

本书是“中国经济史学文苑”之一,全书共分4个章节,主要对1851-1894的晚清财政作了分析与研究,具体内容包括清朝前期财政概述、太平天国起义对清朝财政的影响、两次鸦片战争对清朝财政的影响、甲午(1894年)之前清朝财政收支的结构和规模。该书可供各大专院校作为教材使用,也可供从事相关工作的人员作为参考用书使用。

Book Contents

总序
第一章 清朝前期财政概述
第一节 财政管理
一、财务行政机构
二、财政管理体制及主要制度
三、仓、库制度
第二节 财政收入
一、田赋
二、盐法和盐课
三、榷关和关税
四、杂赋
五、捐输
第三节 财政支出
一、军费
二、官俸及养廉
三、行政经费
四、驿站经费
五、廪膳膏火及科场经费
六、工程费
七、采办和织造费
八、保息及救荒支出
第四节 收支大势
一、顺治至康熙前期
二、康熙中期至乾隆时期
三、嘉庆至道光时期
第二章 太平天国起义对清朝财政的影响
第一节 太平天国起义引发清政府空前的财政危机
一、咸丰、同治时期的财政大危机
二、户部银库收支所反映的财政大危机
三、清政府镇压人民起义的军需支出估计
第二节 清政府应对财政危机的措施
一、开捐例
二、铸造大钱及发行官票、宝钞
三、加征田赋
四、举借内债
第三节 厘金的创办、推行与征收
一、厘金的创办及推行
二、厘金的种类、征收制度和征收机构
三、厘金的收数
第四节 中央集权财政体制的动摇
一、中央与各省权力格局的变化
二、财政体制的变化
第三章 两次鸦片战争对清朝财政的影响
第一节 第一次鸦片战争与“协定关税”
一、中英《南京条约》及其附约对中国关税主权的侵夺
二、中美《望厦条约》、中法《黄埔条约》与“协定关税”原则的确立
第二节 第二次鸦片战争与海关行政权的丧失及中国关税主权的进一步被剥夺
一、江海关行政权的丧失
二、税务司制度的全面推广
三、对中国关税主权的进一步侵夺
第三节 两次鸦片战争以后的海关税收
一、海关税收的增长
二、海关税收的分配
第四节 近代的第一批外债
一、镇压太平天国时期的借款
二、左宗棠西征及平定新疆借款
三、台防及中法战争借款
四、其他军政借款
第四章 甲午(1894年)之前清朝财政收支的结构和规模
第一节 奏销收支
一、收入
二、支出
第二节 外销收支
一、“捐”的意义的嬗变与新捐税的滥觞
二、外销收支财政地位的变化
三、外销收入估计
四、外销支出
第三节 收支大势与财政规模
一、甲午前的收支大势
二、甲午前财政规模估计
征引及参考文献
后记

 

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绥服远人:清帝国治理广西的教化策略

when 2013
who Xu Yi
what book 绥服远人:清帝国治理广西的教化策略
publisher Social Science Academic Press (社会文献科学出版社)
where Beijing (北京)
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

Book Description

在清人的话语中,广西缺乏鲜明的区位特征,始终是一个处于“中国”与“蛮夷”之间的“渐染之地”,或者是一个处于“内地”与“边省”之间的模糊地带。满族作为异族身份在广西这样一个区位模糊的省份能够建立起统治合法性,在很大程度上是因为在当地成功构建了一项超越传统的“汉化”模式且具有普世意义的教化工程。然而,也正是这种区位识别上的模糊性,使得清帝国在广西构建与维护教化工程的过程中显得摇摆不定,最终导致了整个教化工程的坍塌。《绥服远人:清帝国治理广西的教化策略》包含两个主题:一是从清人自身表达出发,重构广西在清帝国治理战略中的角色与地位,进而揭示出清代广西区位的模糊特征。二是探讨清帝国教化工程在广西的构建、变动以及最终颓败的全过程。

Book Contents

导论“普世主义的教化工程”与“广西”:对清帝国前期治理策略的思考
上编 清帝国教化工程在广西的建成
第一章 “文德绥怀”:明清易代与治桂策略的转变
引子 杨芳眼中的广西
第一节 “边缘”与“之间”:明代广西的复杂含义
第二节 明人治桂的困局
第三节 “首明教化”:清人的治桂策略
第二章 “教养之责”:帝国教化工程重建于广西
引子 陆祚藩的抱怨
第一节 重开乡试与重建官学
第二节 清王朝的经费改革与养士合法性的确立
第三节 塑造臣民:明靖江王室后裔朱若炳的个案研究
第三章 “永绥兆姓”:清帝国的“文教普世主义”与广西
引子 雍正帝心目中的广西
第一节 从明代的“小省”到清初的“边省”
第二节 恩威并施:雍正帝的激进改革
第四章 “蒸蒸向化”:广西人对清帝国教化工程的认同
引子 御赐“土才子”农庚尧的仕进之路
第一节 清帝如何处置“无人应试之区”
第二节 助学校之不及

下编 清帝国教化工程在广西的颓败
第五章 从“边省”到“内地”:乾隆帝的政策转向
引子 乾隆帝如何应对来自广西的鞠恺奏折
第一节 乾隆帝的“科场整饬”之一:“反冒籍”
第二节 乾隆帝的“科场整饬”之二:“反舞弊”
第三节 乾隆帝的“科场整饬”之三:“反勒派”
第六章 帝国教化工程的颓败与广西社会的动荡
引子 钱楷的哀叹
第一节 文教普及运动的中挫
第二节 “文教空白区”的社会动荡及清帝国的治理失误
第三节 从“教化”到“敛财”:咸丰帝的彻底放弃

附表
附表一 明代乡试解额人数一览表
附表二 清代乡试解额人数一览表
附表三 清朝广西各府、州、县学设立时间一览表
附表四 清代广西进士名录与籍贯一览表
附表五 清代各个时段广西各地的学额一览表
附表六 清代前期广西官学学田及其学租一览表
附表七 清代前期广西各府、州、县廪粮一览表
附表八 清代前期广西各府贫生银两一览表
附表九 清代广西庶吉士一览表
附表十 乾隆二十五年(1760)以前(包括乾隆二十五年)义学、社学统计表
附表十一 乾隆二十五年(1760)以后义学、社学统计表
附表十二 乾隆二十五年(1760)以前(包括乾隆二十五年)广西书院统计表
附表十三 乾隆二十五年(1760)以后广西书院统计表
参考文献
后记

 

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文教普及与边疆秩序——清前期对广西府江流域的文教治理

when 2010
who Xu Yi
what journal China’s Borderland History and Geography Studies (中国边疆史地研究)
what paper 文教普及与边疆秩序——清前期对广西府江流域的文教治理
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

在广西府江流域,明清两朝对这一流官区域的有效控制,经历了漫长的历史过程。明代推行的军事高压政策并没有能够遏制府江的动乱。清代改变统治策略,推行文教治边。在国家与地方精英的相互配合下,王朝文教的推广不再是”自上而下”的简单说教,而是以文教普及的形式出现,并与边疆秩序互为契合,实现了府江流域的长久安定。但是,乾隆中叶以后伴随着文教普及的中辍,带来了”冒籍混考”、”文教空白区”等社会问题,进而引发了当地社会的冲突与动荡。这一起伏跌宕的历史过程为解决清代如何在边疆地区具体地推行和落实文教治理的问题,提供了一个生动个案。 

keywords

清前期,文教,边疆,广西,府江流域

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