Agricultural Development in Qing China: A Quantitative Study, 1661-1911

Shi Zhihong, Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Biographical note

SHI Zhihong, gained his PhD from the Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 1988. He is currently a Senior Researcher and Professor of Chinese Economic History at the Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Professor SHI is the author of several monographs and many articles on China’s agricultural and financial history.
 

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, and anyone interested in agricultural developments.

Table of contents

Contents

List of Figures and Tables
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty
Chinese Terms
Weights and Measures Used during the Qing Dynasty
Maps of China

0 Introduction
 0.1 Origins of this Book
 0.2 Historical Data Used
 0.3 Research Approach
 0.4 Previous Studies

1 Cultivated Land Area
 1.1 Why Official Qing Records are Not Accurate
 1.2 Actual Area of Land Cultivated during the Qing Dynasty

2 Grain Production: Per Unit Yield and Total Output
 2.1 Average Yield of Grain Crops
 2.2 Total Output of Grain

3 Grain Output Value
 3.1 Grain Price Data Used in this Study
 3.2 Value of Grain Output in Various Periods of the Qing Dynasty
 3.3 Production Cost and Value Added from Grain Production

4 Non-Grain Output Values and Total Agricultural Value
 4.1 Cash-Crop Output Value
 4.2 Output Value of Non-Crop-Based Agricultural Production and Gross Added Values of Overall Agriculture in the Qing Dynasty

5 Development and Underdevelopment of Agriculture in the Qing Dynasty
 5.1 The Zenith of Traditional Agriculture in China
 5.2 Limitations of Agricultural Development in the Qing Dynasty

Appendix A: Population
Appendix B: Cultivated Area
Appendix C: Yield Per Unit Area
Appendix D: Agrarian Structure, Rural Actors and Their Interaction in the System of Agricultural Production During the Qing Dynasty: Land Ownership, Peasants, Landlords and the State

References
Index

ISBN13: 9789004354920
E-ISBN: 9789004355248
Publication Date: October 2017
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 14/3
 

More information on the Chinese version of the book is available in the link below
清代农业的发展和不发展(1661~1911年)

Customs Duties in the Qing Dynasty, ca. 1644-1911

NI Yuping, Tsinghua University

Biographical note

NI Yuping, Ph.D (2003), Peking University, is professor of History Department, Tsinghua University, China. He has published monographs and many articles on China’s financial history.

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, especially those who pay close attention to the Qing’s financial history.

Table of contents

Foreword ... ix
Bozhong LI
Foreword ... xiv
Maarten DUIJVENDAK
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ... xvii
List of Maps, Figures and Tables ... xviii
List of Abbreviations ... xxiii
List of Chinese Terms ... xxiv
About the Guan (Customs Office) ... xxvi

Introduction ... 1

1 Research Approach ... 5
1.1 Previous Research ... 5
1.2 Data Sources ... 7

2 The System of Customs Duties under the Qing Dynasty ... 11
2.1 The System of Customs Duties in Traditional China ... 11
2.2 The Changguan System of the Qing ... 14
2.3 Policy Adjustments ... 17
2.4 Rate of Taxation and Surtaxes ... 23
2.5 Yangguan ... 31

3 Land Border Customs ... 34
3.1 Shanhai Guan ... 34
3.2 Zhangjiakou ... 37
3.3 Shahukou ... 40
3.4 Guihuacheng ... 42
3.5 Dajianlu ... 44
3.6 Fenghuangcheng Zhongjiang ... 45
3.7 Fengtian Niuma Shui ... 46
3.8 Wu Chang and Xun Chang ... 47
3.9 Chihli Pantaokou ... 49
3.10 Other Ports ... 50
3.11 Summary ... 52

4 Grand Canal and Yangtze River Customs ... 54
4.1 Chongwenmen ... 54
4.2 Zuoyi and Youyi ... 56
4.3 Zuoliangtin ... 61
4.4 Huai’an Guan ... 62
4.5 Hushu Guan ... 65
4.6 Yangzhou Guan ... 67
4.7 Wuhu Guan ... 69
4.8 Fengyang Guan ... 71
4.9 Longjiang Guan and Xixing Guan ... 74
4.10 Jiujiang Guan ... 78
4.11 Gan Guan ... 79
4.12 Beixin Guan and Nanxin Guan ... 82
4.13 Linqin Guan ... 85
4.14 Taiping Guan ... 88
4.15 Wuchang Guan ... 90
4.16 Jingzhou Guan and Hubei Xinguan ... 92
4.17 Kui Guan and Yu Guan ... 95
4.18 Summary ... 98

5 Coastal Customs ... 100
5.1 Tianjin Guan ... 100
5.2 Tianjin Haiguan ... 102
5.3 Jianghai Guan ... 103
5.4 Zhehai Guan ... 106
5.5 Minhai Guan ... 108
5.6 Yuehai Changguan (after 1861) ... 110
5.7 Donghai Guan ... 111
5.8 Brief Summary ... 112

6 Yangguan ... 114
6.1 Yuehai Guan (before 1861) ... 115
6.2 Jianghai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 117
6.3 Zhehai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 118
6.4 Xiamen and Fuzhou Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 119
6.5 Yangguan (after 1861) ... 120
6.6 Brief Summary ... 124

7 Customs Duties and the Economy ... 128
7.1 Changguan and Yangguan ... 128
7.2 Huguan and Gongguan ... 138
7.3 Influence of Population Growth and Inflation ... 152

8 Conclusion ... 167

Postscript ... 171

Appendix A – Customs Revenues Collected at Changguan, 1723–1910 ... 173
Appendix B – Customs Revenue Data for Yuhei Guan, 1723–1911 ... 211
Appendix C – Customs Revenues Collected at Yangguan, 1844–1910 ... 212

References ... 220
Index ... 227

ISBN13: 9789004324879
E-ISBN: 9789004324886
Publication Date: November 2016
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Pages, Illustr.: xxvi, 229 pp.; incl. 72 color figures, 72 tables and 1 color map
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 13/2

Central Government Silver Treasury: Revenue, Expenditure and Inventory Statistics, ca. 1667-1899

Shi Zhihong, Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Biographical note

SHI Zhihong, gained his PhD from the Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 1988. He is currently a Senior Researcher and Professor of Chinese Economic History at the Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Professor SHI is the author of several monographs and many articles on China’s agricultural and financial history.

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, especially those who pay close attention to the Qing’s financial history.

Table of contents

Series Editors’ Preface to the Quantitative Economic History of China Series ... vii
List of Figures and Tables ... viii
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ... xiv
Chinese Terms ... xv
Currencies Used during the Qing Dynasty ... xxii

Introduction ... 1
1 The Central Government’s Silver Treasury ... 4
1.1 Set-up and Evolution of the Three Stores ... 4
1.2 Management of the Silver Treasury ... 7

2 Silver Treasury Registers and Their Copies ... 14
2.1 Yellow Registers of the Silver Treasury ... 14
2.2 Copies of the Yellow Registers of the Silver Treasury ... 18
2.3 Use in this Book of Copies of Yellow Registers ... 23
2.3.1 Annual Aggregate Revenues, Expenditures and Their Surpluses/Defijicits ... 24
2.3.2 Annual Inventories of the Silver Treasury ... 25

3 Silver Treasury Revenues during the Qing Dynasty ... 27
3.1 Provisions to the Capital and Silver Treasury Revenues ... 27
3.2 Silver Treasury Revenues from Kangxi to Daoguang: 1662–1850 ... 35
3.3 Silver Treasury Revenues during Xianfeng and Tongzhi: 1851–1874 ... 45
3.4 Silver Treasury Revenues during Guangxu: 1875–1908 ... 52

4 Silver Treasury Expenditures and Payment Surpluses/Defijicits during the Qing Dynasty ... 64
4.1 From Kangxi to Daoguang ... 64
4.2 The XianfengTongzhi Period ... 79
4.3 Guangxu Period ... 86

5 Fluctuations in Inventories of the Silver Treasury during the Qing Dynasty ... 96
5.1 From Kangxi to Daoguang ... 96
5.2 Xianfeng, Tongzhi and Guangxu ... 102

Appendix A: Tables of Aggregate Revenue/Expenditure of the Silver Treasury ... 109
Appendix B: Inventories of the Silver Treasury under Diffferent Reigns ... 217

References ... 245
Index ... 250

ISBN13: 9789004307322
E-ISBN: 9789004307339
Publication Date: January 2016
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Pages, Illustr.: xxviii, 252 pp.; incl. 120 tables, 10 figures and 12 illustrations
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 12/01