Customs Duties in the Qing Dynasty, ca. 1644-1911

NI Yuping, Tsinghua University

Biographical note

NI Yuping, Ph.D (2003), Peking University, is professor of History Department, Tsinghua University, China. He has published monographs and many articles on China’s financial history.

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, especially those who pay close attention to the Qing’s financial history.

Table of contents

Foreword ... ix
Bozhong LI
Foreword ... xiv
Maarten DUIJVENDAK
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ... xvii
List of Maps, Figures and Tables ... xviii
List of Abbreviations ... xxiii
List of Chinese Terms ... xxiv
About the Guan (Customs Office) ... xxvi

Introduction ... 1

1 Research Approach ... 5
1.1 Previous Research ... 5
1.2 Data Sources ... 7

2 The System of Customs Duties under the Qing Dynasty ... 11
2.1 The System of Customs Duties in Traditional China ... 11
2.2 The Changguan System of the Qing ... 14
2.3 Policy Adjustments ... 17
2.4 Rate of Taxation and Surtaxes ... 23
2.5 Yangguan ... 31

3 Land Border Customs ... 34
3.1 Shanhai Guan ... 34
3.2 Zhangjiakou ... 37
3.3 Shahukou ... 40
3.4 Guihuacheng ... 42
3.5 Dajianlu ... 44
3.6 Fenghuangcheng Zhongjiang ... 45
3.7 Fengtian Niuma Shui ... 46
3.8 Wu Chang and Xun Chang ... 47
3.9 Chihli Pantaokou ... 49
3.10 Other Ports ... 50
3.11 Summary ... 52

4 Grand Canal and Yangtze River Customs ... 54
4.1 Chongwenmen ... 54
4.2 Zuoyi and Youyi ... 56
4.3 Zuoliangtin ... 61
4.4 Huai’an Guan ... 62
4.5 Hushu Guan ... 65
4.6 Yangzhou Guan ... 67
4.7 Wuhu Guan ... 69
4.8 Fengyang Guan ... 71
4.9 Longjiang Guan and Xixing Guan ... 74
4.10 Jiujiang Guan ... 78
4.11 Gan Guan ... 79
4.12 Beixin Guan and Nanxin Guan ... 82
4.13 Linqin Guan ... 85
4.14 Taiping Guan ... 88
4.15 Wuchang Guan ... 90
4.16 Jingzhou Guan and Hubei Xinguan ... 92
4.17 Kui Guan and Yu Guan ... 95
4.18 Summary ... 98

5 Coastal Customs ... 100
5.1 Tianjin Guan ... 100
5.2 Tianjin Haiguan ... 102
5.3 Jianghai Guan ... 103
5.4 Zhehai Guan ... 106
5.5 Minhai Guan ... 108
5.6 Yuehai Changguan (after 1861) ... 110
5.7 Donghai Guan ... 111
5.8 Brief Summary ... 112

6 Yangguan ... 114
6.1 Yuehai Guan (before 1861) ... 115
6.2 Jianghai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 117
6.3 Zhehai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 118
6.4 Xiamen and Fuzhou Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 119
6.5 Yangguan (after 1861) ... 120
6.6 Brief Summary ... 124

7 Customs Duties and the Economy ... 128
7.1 Changguan and Yangguan ... 128
7.2 Huguan and Gongguan ... 138
7.3 Influence of Population Growth and Inflation ... 152

8 Conclusion ... 167

Postscript ... 171

Appendix A – Customs Revenues Collected at Changguan, 1723–1910 ... 173
Appendix B – Customs Revenue Data for Yuhei Guan, 1723–1911 ... 211
Appendix C – Customs Revenues Collected at Yangguan, 1844–1910 ... 212

References ... 220
Index ... 227

ISBN13: 9789004324879
E-ISBN: 9789004324886
Publication Date: November 2016
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Pages, Illustr.: xxvi, 229 pp.; incl. 72 color figures, 72 tables and 1 color map
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 13/2