清代农业的发展和不发展(1661~1911年)

史志宏教授,中国社会科学院经济研究所

作者简介

史志宏教授1949年出生于北京,先后就读于北京大学哲学系、历史系,师从商鸿逵先生,1982年获历史学硕士学位。1983年至1985年间,就职于中国第一历史档案馆。1985年至1988年间,在中国社会科学院研究生院师从李文治先生,获经济学博士学位。其后,就职于中国社会科学院经济研究所,历任助理研究员(1988)、副研究员(1990)、研究员(1996)、中国社会科学院研究生院经济系教授、博士生导师(2000),于2011年荣退。史志宏教授自1993年起享受国务院政府特殊津贴,曾任中国经济史学会古代经济史专业委员会理事,先后赴英国伦敦大学亚非学院(SOAS)和荷兰莱顿大学汉学研究院(Sinological Institute)做访问学者并从事合作研究。
 
目录

导 言

  一 本书缘起

  二 历史数据

  三 研究方法

  四 前人成果

第一章 耕地面积

  一 清官书的田亩数字非实际耕地数

  二 清代各时期实际耕地面积估计

第二章 粮食的平均亩产和总产量

  一 亩产量

  二 总产量

第三章 粮食总产值

  一 现存的清代粮价数据

  二 道光三十年的粮价和清代各时期粮食总产值估计

  三 粮食的生产成本和粮食生产增加值估计

第四章 种植业总产值和农业总产值

  一 种植业总产值

  二 林牧渔业和农业生产总值

第五章 清代农业的发展与不发展

  一 清代农业是中国传统农业发展的最高峰

  二 清代农业发展的局限

附录一 清代人口估计和人口资料

  一 清代官方的人口统计

  二 本项研究各时点的人口总数估计

附录二 清代的耕地面积记录

附录三 清代的粮食亩产记录

参考文献

丛书名:中国量化经济史丛书
页数:354
书号:978-7-5097-9920-8
关键词:清代|农业|中国农业
开本:16
装帧:平装

更多关于本书英文版信息可见以下链接
Agricultural Development in Qing China: A Quantitative Study, 1661-1911

Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.

 

农业革命的量化——评史志宏《清代农业生产指标的估计》

when 2015
who 巴斯·范鲁文
张紫鹏
what journal 中国经济史研究
what paper 农业革命的量化——评史志宏《清代农业生产指标的估计》
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Zhang Zipeng
   

abstract

农业发展是历史研究,或者更确切地说,经济史研究中最重要的领域之一。譬如农业生产率的提高被视为推升英格兰工业化水平的一个重要原因。此外,前近代社会由于经济规模较小,农业在其福利和税收方面都扮演着重要角色。因此,几个世纪以来,许多所谓传统学派的学者试图对农业总产出进行量化。随着城市化的兴起,出现了另一种学派,着重研究农业变动的社会和文化涵义。不过,传统学派的重要地位一直延续至今。在中国,农业的定量研究同样是许多大讨论的基础。譬如最近兴起的大分流讨论,即针对18至19世纪中国相对于西欧的经济地位,其中农业部门增长或衰退的争论便是其中的主要问题之一。史志宏研究员在其《清代农业生产指标的估计》一文中,对清代中国农业的数据进行了系统化的收集和分析,堪称这一领域最全面的研究成果,必将对农业史和经济史的研究产生重大影响。

keywords

农业,中国,英格兰,清代

 

citation format

MLA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

19世纪中叶中国丝纺织业生产估值的再研究

when 2014
who 徐毅
what journal 古今农业
what paper 19世纪中叶中国丝纺织业生产估值的再研究
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

本文利用各种新收集的数据与史料,重新估算了19世纪中叶的中国丝纺织业的总产量,并引入GDP测算方法,核算了用1933年价格表示这一行业的增加值。 

keywords

19世纪中叶,中国,丝纺织业,产量,增加值

citation format

MLA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

 

中国工业的长期表现及其全球比较:1850—2012年——以增加值核算为中心

when 2016
who 徐毅
巴斯·范鲁文
what journal 中国经济史研究
what paper 中国工业的长期表现及其全球比较:1850—2012年——以增加值核算为中心
language 中文

involved project member(s)

巴斯·范鲁文 徐毅
   

abstract

本文运用国民收入账户体系的部门核算法,结合当今联合国与世界各国的最新研究成果,建立1850—2012年包括中国在内的世界主要国家的工业增加值数列,尝试修正上个世纪80年代法国学者布洛赫(Paul Bairoch)提出的世界工业分布模式。 

keywords

中国; 工业化; 增加值; 世界;

citation format

MLA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Inspiration vs. Perspiration in Economic Development of the Former Soviet Union and China

when 2015
who Bas van Leeuwen

Dmitry Didenko

Péter Földvári

what journal Economics of Transition
what paper Inspiration vs. Perspiration in Economic Development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010)
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

We thank Stephen Broadberry, Kyoji Fukao and other participants of the Productivity session of the 2012 Asian Historical Economics Conference held at Hitotsubashi University; their contributions to the discussion helped to improve this paper. The authors are also grateful to an anonymous referee for useful advice and suggestions. The findings, interpretations and conclusions are the authors’ own views, which are not necessarily shared by the institutions with which they are affiliated. The authors accept full responsibility for the contents of the paper, including possible errors and omissions. This paper was supported by the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities in China (Jinan University).

abstract

Here, we discuss the role of both perspiration factors (physical and human capital) and inspiration factors (Total Factor Productivity) in the economic development of the Former Soviet Union area (FSU) and China, ca. 1920–2010. Using a newly created dataset, we find that during the Socialist central-planning period, economic growth in both countries was largely driven by physical capital accumulation. This finding follows logically from the development policies in place at that time. During their transition periods, (i.e., starting from the late 1970s in China and the late 1980s in the FSU), China managed to keep technical inefficiency of production factors in check, largely by massively increasing its human capital, thereby lowering the physical-to-human capital ratio. In contrast, the FSU accomplished a similar outcome largely through reducing its stock of physical capital. As a result, although there was little difference in technical efficiency between these two economies, China’s emphasis on human capital formation made it easier for this country to improve its general productivity and to increase per capita growth. This changed in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when the FSU began to recover economically, regaining its 1990 levels of output and productivity.

keywords

Physical capital,human capital,productivity,technology,economic development,Socialism,USSR ,China

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecot.12060/full

citation format

MLA Leeuwen, Bas, Dmitry Didenko, and Péter Földvári. “Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010).” Economics of Transition 23.1 (2015): 213-246.
APA Leeuwen, B., Didenko, D., & Földvári, P. (2015). Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010). Economics of Transition, 23(1), 213-246.
Chicago Leeuwen, Bas, Dmitry Didenko, and Péter Földvári. “Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010).” Economics of Transition 23, no. 1 (2015): 213-246.
Harvard Leeuwen, B., Didenko, D. and Földvári, P., 2015. Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010). Economics of Transition, 23(1), pp.213-246.
Vancouver Leeuwen B, Didenko D, Földvári P. Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010). Economics of Transition. 2015 Jan 1;23(1):213-46.

Customs Duties in the Qing Dynasty, ca. 1644-1911

NI Yuping, Tsinghua University

Biographical note

NI Yuping, Ph.D (2003), Peking University, is professor of History Department, Tsinghua University, China. He has published monographs and many articles on China’s financial history.

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, especially those who pay close attention to the Qing’s financial history.

Table of contents

Foreword ... ix
Bozhong LI
Foreword ... xiv
Maarten DUIJVENDAK
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ... xvii
List of Maps, Figures and Tables ... xviii
List of Abbreviations ... xxiii
List of Chinese Terms ... xxiv
About the Guan (Customs Office) ... xxvi

Introduction ... 1

1 Research Approach ... 5
1.1 Previous Research ... 5
1.2 Data Sources ... 7

2 The System of Customs Duties under the Qing Dynasty ... 11
2.1 The System of Customs Duties in Traditional China ... 11
2.2 The Changguan System of the Qing ... 14
2.3 Policy Adjustments ... 17
2.4 Rate of Taxation and Surtaxes ... 23
2.5 Yangguan ... 31

3 Land Border Customs ... 34
3.1 Shanhai Guan ... 34
3.2 Zhangjiakou ... 37
3.3 Shahukou ... 40
3.4 Guihuacheng ... 42
3.5 Dajianlu ... 44
3.6 Fenghuangcheng Zhongjiang ... 45
3.7 Fengtian Niuma Shui ... 46
3.8 Wu Chang and Xun Chang ... 47
3.9 Chihli Pantaokou ... 49
3.10 Other Ports ... 50
3.11 Summary ... 52

4 Grand Canal and Yangtze River Customs ... 54
4.1 Chongwenmen ... 54
4.2 Zuoyi and Youyi ... 56
4.3 Zuoliangtin ... 61
4.4 Huai’an Guan ... 62
4.5 Hushu Guan ... 65
4.6 Yangzhou Guan ... 67
4.7 Wuhu Guan ... 69
4.8 Fengyang Guan ... 71
4.9 Longjiang Guan and Xixing Guan ... 74
4.10 Jiujiang Guan ... 78
4.11 Gan Guan ... 79
4.12 Beixin Guan and Nanxin Guan ... 82
4.13 Linqin Guan ... 85
4.14 Taiping Guan ... 88
4.15 Wuchang Guan ... 90
4.16 Jingzhou Guan and Hubei Xinguan ... 92
4.17 Kui Guan and Yu Guan ... 95
4.18 Summary ... 98

5 Coastal Customs ... 100
5.1 Tianjin Guan ... 100
5.2 Tianjin Haiguan ... 102
5.3 Jianghai Guan ... 103
5.4 Zhehai Guan ... 106
5.5 Minhai Guan ... 108
5.6 Yuehai Changguan (after 1861) ... 110
5.7 Donghai Guan ... 111
5.8 Brief Summary ... 112

6 Yangguan ... 114
6.1 Yuehai Guan (before 1861) ... 115
6.2 Jianghai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 117
6.3 Zhehai Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 118
6.4 Xiamen and Fuzhou Yangguan (1844–1861) ... 119
6.5 Yangguan (after 1861) ... 120
6.6 Brief Summary ... 124

7 Customs Duties and the Economy ... 128
7.1 Changguan and Yangguan ... 128
7.2 Huguan and Gongguan ... 138
7.3 Influence of Population Growth and Inflation ... 152

8 Conclusion ... 167

Postscript ... 171

Appendix A – Customs Revenues Collected at Changguan, 1723–1910 ... 173
Appendix B – Customs Revenue Data for Yuhei Guan, 1723–1911 ... 211
Appendix C – Customs Revenues Collected at Yangguan, 1844–1910 ... 212

References ... 220
Index ... 227

ISBN13: 9789004324879
E-ISBN: 9789004324886
Publication Date: November 2016
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Pages, Illustr.: xxvi, 229 pp.; incl. 72 color figures, 72 tables and 1 color map
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 13/2

Central Government Silver Treasury: Revenue, Expenditure and Inventory Statistics, ca. 1667-1899

Shi Zhihong, Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Biographical note

SHI Zhihong, gained his PhD from the Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 1988. He is currently a Senior Researcher and Professor of Chinese Economic History at the Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Professor SHI is the author of several monographs and many articles on China’s agricultural and financial history.

Readership

All interested in the history of the Qing dynasty of China, especially those who pay close attention to the Qing’s financial history.

Table of contents

Series Editors’ Preface to the Quantitative Economic History of China Series ... vii
List of Figures and Tables ... viii
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty ... xiv
Chinese Terms ... xv
Currencies Used during the Qing Dynasty ... xxii

Introduction ... 1
1 The Central Government’s Silver Treasury ... 4
1.1 Set-up and Evolution of the Three Stores ... 4
1.2 Management of the Silver Treasury ... 7

2 Silver Treasury Registers and Their Copies ... 14
2.1 Yellow Registers of the Silver Treasury ... 14
2.2 Copies of the Yellow Registers of the Silver Treasury ... 18
2.3 Use in this Book of Copies of Yellow Registers ... 23
2.3.1 Annual Aggregate Revenues, Expenditures and Their Surpluses/Defijicits ... 24
2.3.2 Annual Inventories of the Silver Treasury ... 25

3 Silver Treasury Revenues during the Qing Dynasty ... 27
3.1 Provisions to the Capital and Silver Treasury Revenues ... 27
3.2 Silver Treasury Revenues from Kangxi to Daoguang: 1662–1850 ... 35
3.3 Silver Treasury Revenues during Xianfeng and Tongzhi: 1851–1874 ... 45
3.4 Silver Treasury Revenues during Guangxu: 1875–1908 ... 52

4 Silver Treasury Expenditures and Payment Surpluses/Defijicits during the Qing Dynasty ... 64
4.1 From Kangxi to Daoguang ... 64
4.2 The XianfengTongzhi Period ... 79
4.3 Guangxu Period ... 86

5 Fluctuations in Inventories of the Silver Treasury during the Qing Dynasty ... 96
5.1 From Kangxi to Daoguang ... 96
5.2 Xianfeng, Tongzhi and Guangxu ... 102

Appendix A: Tables of Aggregate Revenue/Expenditure of the Silver Treasury ... 109
Appendix B: Inventories of the Silver Treasury under Diffferent Reigns ... 217

References ... 245
Index ... 250

ISBN13: 9789004307322
E-ISBN: 9789004307339
Publication Date: January 2016
Format: Hardback
Publication Type: Book
Pages, Illustr.: xxviii, 252 pp.; incl. 120 tables, 10 figures and 12 illustrations
Imprint: BRILL
Language: English, Chinese simplified, Chinese traditional / complex
 
Main Series: Global Economic History Series
Sub Series: The Quantitative Economic History of China
ISSN: 2405-870X
Volume: 12/01

HINDI项目驻华数据挖掘分队人员扩充

Since the recruitment of Dr. Ma Xi and Dr. Jiang Zhouqing in May, our data mining squad in China has been reinforced in further with three youths from several Chinese universities:

Li Jia Zhang Runze Xiao Faqiong
     

Mr. Li Jia, who is going to study Regional Economics in the School of Economics, Henan University, for a master degree.

Mr. Zhang Runze, who is going to study Economics in Shandong University, for a master degree.

Miss. Xiao Faqiong, a bachelor student who is studying Chinese Literature in the School of Liberal Arts, Renmin University of China.

《大数据与中国历史研究》第1辑出版

On this month, June 2017, the works of our researchers Dr. Bas van Leeuwen and Prof. Dr. Xu Yi, and our visiting scholar Prof. Dr. Yuan Weipeng, have been published in the First Issue of a new bulletin in China, “Big Data and the Study of Chinese History“. This bulletin is published by Social Science Academic Press, and presented by the Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, and the School of History and Culture, which are both from Central China Normal University, which is also known as Huazhong Normal University.

Dr. Bas van Leeuwen Prof. Dr. Xu Yi Prof. Dr. Yuan Weipeng
yuan weipeng 袁为鹏

Since 2013, Central China Normal University has been co-operated with Hong Kong University of Science and Technology on the topic of Big Data and the Study of Chinese History. Renowned historians Prof.Dr. James Lee, Prof.Dr. Cameron Campbell and Prof.Dr. Li Bozhong were involved as Adjunct Professor. Annually circa 10 scholars who have expertise on quantitative history research are invited to speak in the lecture series “Big Data and the Study of Chinese History” in Central China Normal University. This bulletin is a collection of relevant researches and speeches.

In the First Issue of the bulletin, the selected research of our researchers Dr. Bas van Leeuwen and Prof. Dr. Xu Yi is: Ni Yuping, Xu Yi and Bas van Leeuwen (2016), “Calculation China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview”. Social Sciences in China, 37(2), 56-75.

The selected research of our visiting scholar Prof. Dr. Yuan Weipeng is: Ma, Debin and Yuan, Weipeng (2016), “Discovering economic history in footnotes: the story of the Tong Taisheng merchant archive (1790-1850)“. Modern China, 42 (5). 483-504.

The selected speech of our visiting scholar Prof. Dr. Yuan Weipeng is: “a talk on the quantitative history”.

Central China Normal University 华中师范大学