Drivers of Industrialisation: Intersectoral Evidence from the Low Countries

 

when 2017
who Robin Philips
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Working Papers
what paper Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century.
language English

involved project member(s)

Robin Philips Peter Foldvari Bas van Leeuwen
   

abstract

In this paper, we trace the causes of regional industrial development in the nineteenth century Low Countries by disentangling the complex relationship between industrialisation, technological progress and human capital formation. We use sectoral differences in the application of technology and human capital as the central elements to explain the rise in employment in the manufacturing sector during the nineteenth century, and our findings suggest a re-interpretation of the deskilling debate. To account for differences among manufacturing sectors, we use population and industrial census data, subdivided according to their present-day manufacturing sector equivalents of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Instrumental variable regression analysis revealed that employment in the manufacturing sector was influenced by so-called upper- tail knowledge and not by average educational levels, providing empirical proof of a so-called deskilling industrialisation process. However, we find notable differences between manufacturing sectors. The textiles and clothing sectors show few agglomeration effects and limited use of steam-powered engines, and average education levels cannot adequately explain regional industrialisation. In contrast, the location of the fast- growing and innovative machinery-manufacturing sector was more influenced by technology and the availability of human capital, particularly upper-tail knowledge captured by secondary school attendance rates.

keywords
industrialization; deskilling; human capital; steam engine; labour; economic growth

citation format

MLA
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century” (2017). MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
APA
Philips, R., Foldvari, P., and Van Leeuwen, B. (2017). Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Chicago
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Harvard
Philips, R., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Vancouver
Philips, R., Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.

Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

Australian Economic History Review
when 2016
who Yi Xu
Zhihong Shi
Bas van Leeuwen
Yuping Ni
Zipeng Zhang
Ye Ma
what journal Australian Economic History Review
what paper Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi Zhang Zipeng
     

abstract

In recent decades, national income has become increasingly important as a measure of a nation’s economic health. In this study, we used a wide array of primary and secondary sources to arrive at values of the Chinese per capita gross domestic product during the period of 1661–1933. We found a persistent decline in the per capita gross domestic product between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, followed by a period of stagnation. This pattern, which shows up in many Asian countries, with the exception of Japan, provides a basis for improving our understanding of the patterns of global economic convergence and divergence.

keywords

China; growth; national income; Qing dynasty

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aehr.12127/full

citation format

MLA Xu, Yi et al. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661–1933.” Australian Economic History Review, vol 57, no. 3, 2016, pp. 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
APA Xu, Y., Shi, Z., van Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., & Ma, Y. (2016). Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), 368–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aehr.12127
Chicago Xu, Yi, Zhihong Shi, Bas van Leeuwen, Yuping Ni, Zipeng Zhang, and Ye Ma. 2016. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661-1933”. Australian Economic History Review 57 (3): 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
Harvard
Xu, Y., Shi, Z., Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z. and Ma, Y., 2017. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), pp.368-393.
Vancouver Xu Y, Shi Z, Leeuwen B, Ni Y, Zhang Z, Ma Y. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review. 2017 Nov 1;57(3):368-93.

 

19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算

when 2013
who 徐毅

巴斯·范鲁文

what chapter 19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
what book 清史论丛 2013年号
publisher 中国广播电视出版社
where 北京
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

Book Description

《清史论丛(2013年号)》由中国社会科学院历史研究所清史研究室编写,主要内容包括:己庚旱灾及其政治影响、清代泥石流灾害刍议、李塨京师教馆考、试论南书房世家的形成原因、郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献、远方奇人与蛮夷之祸——明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识等内容。

Book Contents

许大龄师的为人与为学–纪念许大龄教授诞生90周年
清代泥石流灾害刍议
己庚旱灾及其政治影响
清朝地方社会治安文武分工协防体系考论
清中叶朝廷和基层旗人对满洲典礼的张扬,
史实在清代传记中的变异–佟国纲、华善奏请改隶满洲考辨
凌驷甲、乙之际事迹考辨
疆臣守土:汉军旗人蔡毓荣的“武功与文治”
李塨京师教馆考
汪端年谱
试论南书房世家的形成原因
论焦循与八股文
乾隆时期广西乡试舞弊案简述
乾隆时期连台本大戏演剧的宫廷化特色
学潮、学科与学制–光绪二十九年张之洞在京参与学务考
19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献
韩江雅集–清中叶士商互动的个案研究
所见、所闻、所传闻:《阅微草堂笔记》的采信分析
乾嘉学派中江藩的归属问题探析
《周益文忠公集》对清代辑佚学的贡献 –以朱彝尊《经义考》与四库馆臣《永乐大典》辑佚为例“
“以书经世”与“藏而为学”:管庭芬藏书思想刍议
13一17.世纪西方对中国人娱乐之认知
远方奇人与蛮夷之祸–明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识
《李安德日记》节译

Book Reviews

citation format

MLA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

A re-estimation of mass literacy in China in the 19th century

when 2013
who Xu Yi

Bas van Leeuwen

what chapter A re-estimation of mass literacy in China in the 19th century (19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算)
what book Qing History Forum (清史论丛 2013年号)
publisher China Radio and Television Publishing House (中国广播电视出版社)
where Beijing
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

Book Description

《清史论丛(2013年号)》由中国社会科学院历史研究所清史研究室编写,主要内容包括:己庚旱灾及其政治影响、清代泥石流灾害刍议、李塨京师教馆考、试论南书房世家的形成原因、郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献、远方奇人与蛮夷之祸——明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识等内容。

Book Contents

许大龄师的为人与为学–纪念许大龄教授诞生90周年
清代泥石流灾害刍议
己庚旱灾及其政治影响
清朝地方社会治安文武分工协防体系考论
清中叶朝廷和基层旗人对满洲典礼的张扬,
史实在清代传记中的变异–佟国纲、华善奏请改隶满洲考辨
凌驷甲、乙之际事迹考辨
疆臣守土:汉军旗人蔡毓荣的“武功与文治”
李塨京师教馆考
汪端年谱
试论南书房世家的形成原因
论焦循与八股文
乾隆时期广西乡试舞弊案简述
乾隆时期连台本大戏演剧的宫廷化特色
学潮、学科与学制–光绪二十九年张之洞在京参与学务考
19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献
韩江雅集–清中叶士商互动的个案研究
所见、所闻、所传闻:《阅微草堂笔记》的采信分析
乾嘉学派中江藩的归属问题探析
《周益文忠公集》对清代辑佚学的贡献 –以朱彝尊《经义考》与四库馆臣《永乐大典》辑佚为例“
“以书经世”与“藏而为学”:管庭芬藏书思想刍议
13一17.世纪西方对中国人娱乐之认知
远方奇人与蛮夷之祸–明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识
《李安德日记》节译

Book Reviews

 

citation format

MLA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Where Do Ideas Come from?: The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present

when 2014
who Aurelian P. Plopeanu
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten Van Zanden
what journal European Journal of Science and Theology
what paper Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Recently, more and more use is made from book production as a measure of the long-run development of human capital. However, its relation with technology and growth is often found to be small and changing over time. In this paper we try to establish the link between book production and the spread of “ideas” as proxied by patents both over time and between regions. Two mechanisms may be distinguished. First, in the initial phase of economic development, the production of books may stimulate the accumulation of knowledge already present in society. After such an accumulation is complete, books may advance a common research focus within a certain geographic space. Indeed, applying this to the case of England, we find that books had a significant role on the number of patents during the second Industrial Revolution. However, when education became increasingly important, the role of books eventually broke down in the second half of the twentieth century. This pattern does not hold true for less developed regions where, due to the lack of efficient education, linguistic fragmentation, an overwhelmingly oral culture, and a structural different kind of knowledge, book production stagnated and no knowledge could be imported (for example, via translated books).

keywords

book production, patents, ideas, education, economic development

citation format

MLA
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., et al. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
APA
Plopeanu, A. P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2014). Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Chicago
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., Peter Foldvari, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
Harvard
Plopeanu, A.P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and Van Zanden, J.L., 2014. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Vancouver
Plopeanu AP, Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, Van Zanden JL. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present

when 2014
who Aurelian P. Plopeanu
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten Van Zanden
what journal European Journal of Science and Theology
what paper Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Recently, more and more use is made from book production as a measure of the long-run development of human capital. However, its relation with technology and growth is often found to be small and changing over time. In this paper we try to establish the link between book production and the spread of “ideas” as proxied by patents both over time and between regions. Two mechanisms may be distinguished. First, in the initial phase of economic development, the production of books may stimulate the accumulation of knowledge already present in society. After such an accumulation is complete, books may advance a common research focus within a certain geographic space. Indeed, applying this to the case of England, we find that books had a significant role on the number of patents during the second Industrial Revolution. However, when education became increasingly important, the role of books eventually broke down in the second half of the twentieth century. This pattern does not hold true for less developed regions where, due to the lack of efficient education, linguistic fragmentation, an overwhelmingly oral culture, and a structural different kind of knowledge, book production stagnated and no knowledge could be imported (for example, via translated books).

keywords

book production, patents, ideas, education, economic development

citation format

MLA
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., et al. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
APA
Plopeanu, A. P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2014). Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Chicago
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., Peter Foldvari, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
Harvard
Plopeanu, A.P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and Van Zanden, J.L., 2014. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Vancouver
Plopeanu AP, Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, Van Zanden JL. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.

 

Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.

 

A note on height and surnames: the role of networks

when 2014
who Wolter Hassink
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy
what paper A note on height and surnames: the role of networks
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen
 

abstract

Many studies indicate that human height is determined largely by childhood circumstances, which in turn influences an adult’s labor market opportunities. The aim of this note is to test this thesis by examining the correlation between childhood circumstances and labor market outcomes on the one hand, and heights on the other, when networks are included as proxied by surnames. The fact that, after the inclusion of this surname proxy, we find a correlation only between height and labor market outcomes suggests that while childhood circumstances affect height largely via social status and networks as captured by surnames, the same does not apply for labor market outcomes.

keywords

Indonesia, networks, stature

 

citation format

MLA
Hassink, Wolter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “A note on height and surnames: the role of networks.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 19.4 (2014): 579-587.
APA
Hassink, W., & van Leeuwen, B. (2014). A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(4), 579-587.
Chicago
Hassink, Wolter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “A note on height and surnames: the role of networks.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 19, no. 4 (2014): 579-587.
Harvard
Hassink, W. and van Leeuwen, B., 2014. A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(4), pp.579-587.
Vancouver
Hassink W, van Leeuwen B. A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. 2014 Oct 2;19(4):579-87.

#logo or frontpage of the journal if a big picture#

A note on height and surnames: the role of networks

when 2014
who Wolter Hassink
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy
what paper A note on height and surnames: the role of networks
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen
 

abstract

Many studies indicate that human height is determined largely by childhood circumstances, which in turn influences an adult’s labor market opportunities. The aim of this note is to test this thesis by examining the correlation between childhood circumstances and labor market outcomes on the one hand, and heights on the other, when networks are included as proxied by surnames. The fact that, after the inclusion of this surname proxy, we find a correlation only between height and labor market outcomes suggests that while childhood circumstances affect height largely via social status and networks as captured by surnames, the same does not apply for labor market outcomes.

keywords

Indonesia, networks, stature

citation format

MLA
Hassink, Wolter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “A note on height and surnames: the role of networks.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 19.4 (2014): 579-587.
APA
Hassink, W., & van Leeuwen, B. (2014). A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(4), 579-587.
Chicago
Hassink, Wolter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “A note on height and surnames: the role of networks.” Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 19, no. 4 (2014): 579-587.
Harvard
Hassink, W. and van Leeuwen, B., 2014. A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(4), pp.579-587.
Vancouver
Hassink W, van Leeuwen B. A note on height and surnames: the role of networks. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. 2014 Oct 2;19(4):579-87.

#logo or frontpage of the journal if a big picture#