Drivers of Industrialisation: Intersectoral Evidence from the Low Countries

 

when 2017
who Robin Philips
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Working Papers
what paper Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century.
language English

involved project member(s)

Robin Philips Peter Foldvari Bas van Leeuwen
   

abstract

In this paper, we trace the causes of regional industrial development in the nineteenth century Low Countries by disentangling the complex relationship between industrialisation, technological progress and human capital formation. We use sectoral differences in the application of technology and human capital as the central elements to explain the rise in employment in the manufacturing sector during the nineteenth century, and our findings suggest a re-interpretation of the deskilling debate. To account for differences among manufacturing sectors, we use population and industrial census data, subdivided according to their present-day manufacturing sector equivalents of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Instrumental variable regression analysis revealed that employment in the manufacturing sector was influenced by so-called upper- tail knowledge and not by average educational levels, providing empirical proof of a so-called deskilling industrialisation process. However, we find notable differences between manufacturing sectors. The textiles and clothing sectors show few agglomeration effects and limited use of steam-powered engines, and average education levels cannot adequately explain regional industrialisation. In contrast, the location of the fast- growing and innovative machinery-manufacturing sector was more influenced by technology and the availability of human capital, particularly upper-tail knowledge captured by secondary school attendance rates.

keywords
industrialization; deskilling; human capital; steam engine; labour; economic growth

citation format

MLA
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century” (2017). MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
APA
Philips, R., Foldvari, P., and Van Leeuwen, B. (2017). Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Chicago
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Harvard
Philips, R., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Vancouver
Philips, R., Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.

The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800

when 2013
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten van Zanden
what journal De Economist
what paper The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Migration always played an important role in Dutch society. However, little quantitative evidence on its effect on economic development is known for the period before the twentieth century even though some stories exist about their effect on the Golden Age. Applying a VAR analysis on a new dataset on migration and growth for the period 1570–1800, we find that migration had a positive effect on factor accumulation during the whole period, and a positive direct effect on the per capita income during the Golden Age. This seems to confirm those studies that claim that the Dutch economy during its Golden Age at least partially benefitted from immigration.

keywords

Economic growth,Immigration,Holland,Endogenous development,Human capital

citation format

MLA
Foldvari, Peter, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800.” De Economist (2013): 1-18.
APA Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & van Zanden, J. L. (2013). The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist, 1-18.
Chicago Foldvari, Peter, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800.” De Economist (2013): 1-18.
Harvard Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and van Zanden, J.L., 2013. The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist, pp.1-18.
Vancouver Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, van Zanden JL. The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist. 2013 Mar 1:1-8.

 

An Alternative Interpretation of “average years of education” in growth regressions

when 2009
who Péter Földvári

Bas van Leeuwen

what journal Applied Economics Letters
what paper An Alternative Interpretation of “average years of education” in growth regressions
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

The majority of the empirical literature uses average years of education as a proxy of the human capital stock. Based on Lucas (1988) we argue that the level of average years of education can also be seen as a proxy for the growth rate of the per capita human capital stock. This has fundamental impact on the interpretation of the coefficient and may explain some of the contradictory empirical results.

keywords

Human capital, education, economic growth, panel analysis

link to paper page of the journal website

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13504850701222178

citation format

MLA Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An alternative interpretation of ‘average years of education’in growth regressions.” Applied Economics Letters 16.9 (2009): 945-949
APA Földvári, P., & van Leeuwen, B. (2009). An alternative interpretation of ‘average years of education’in growth regressions. Applied Economics Letters, 16(9), 945-949.
Chicago Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An alternative interpretation of ‘average years of education’in growth regressions.” Applied Economics Letters 16, no. 9 (2009): 945-949.
Harvard Földvári, P. and van Leeuwen, B., 2009. An alternative interpretation of ‘average years of education’in growth regressions. Applied Economics Letters, 16(9), pp.945-949.
Vancouver Földvári P, van Leeuwen B. An alternative interpretation of ‘average years of education’in growth regressions. Applied Economics Letters. 2009 May 22;16(9):945-9.

Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis

when 2008
who Bas van Leeuwen

Péter Földvári

what journal Asian Economic Journal 
what paper Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time-series Analysis
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

There is a general consensus that human capital is a major factor behind long-run economic growth. Yet, on a macro level, the empirical results do not always seem to concur with this view. To explain this gap between theory and empirics, more focus has been laid on measurement error and data quality. Using an alternative estimate of the stock of human capital, based on Judson (2002), we find evidence that the two major views on the role of human capital in economic development by Lucas (1988) and Romer (1990) coexist and are by no means mutually exclusive. Using a Johansen cointegration test, we find that in India and Indonesia the level of human capital is cointegrated with the level of aggregate income during the whole 20th century, which confirms the theory of Lucas (1988). In Japan, however, the Lucasian approach can be verified only for the first half of the century, while after 1950 there is cointegration between the growth rate of aggregate income and the level of human capital, which is in line with Romer’s view.

keywords

human capital; education; economic growth; time-series analysis; cointegration

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8381.2008.00276.x/full

citation format

MLA Van Leeuwen, Bas, and Peter Foldvari. “Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis.” Asian Economic Journal 22.3 (2008): 225-240.
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Foldvari, P. (2008). Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis. Asian Economic Journal, 22(3), 225-240.
Chicago Van Leeuwen, Bas, and Peter Foldvari. “Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis.” Asian Economic Journal 22, no. 3 (2008): 225-240.
Harvard Van Leeuwen, B. and Foldvari, P., 2008. Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis. Asian Economic Journal, 22(3), pp.225-240.
Vancouver Van Leeuwen B, Foldvari P. Human Capital and Economic Growth in Asia 1890–2000: A Time‐series Analysis. Asian Economic Journal. 2008 Sep 1;22(3):225-40.

 

The development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932-2008

logo of Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies

when 2016
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
what journal Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies
what paper The development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932-2008
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

We estimate inequality in Indonesia between 1932 and 2008. Inequality increased at the start of this period but declined sharply from the 1960s onwards. The increase was due to a shift from domestic to export agriculture over the period up to the Great Depression. During the 1930s, as the price of export crops declined, the income of rich farmers suffered a blow. Yet this was counterbalanced by an increasing gap between expenditures in the urban and rural sectors, causing an overall rise in inequality. As for the second half of the century, we find that the employment shift towards manufacturing and services—combined with an increase in labour productivity in agriculture—accounts for inequality’s decline, which was halted in the 1990s. These inequality trends affected poverty as well, but prior to the 1940s the negative impact of the rise in inequality was offset by an increase in per capita GDP. Between 1950 and 1980 a decline in inequality, combined with increased per capita GDP, rapidly raised a large portion of the population above the poverty line.

keywords

inequalitypoverty, Indonesia

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Földvári, P. (2016). The Development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932–2008. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 52(3), 379-402.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies