Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia

when 2016
who Bas van Leeuwen

Péter Földvári

what journal Journal of Interdisciplinary history
what paper Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a proxy for people’s economic situation, however, finds that whereas ethnicity was a strong predictor of economic status before Indonesia’s Independence, education assumed that role after 1946.

keywords

Indonesia, Netherlands Indies, economy, inequality, poverty, economic mobility

link to paper page of the journal website

http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/JINH_a_00976

citation format

MLA van Leeuwen, Bas, and Peter Földvári. “Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History (2016).
APA van Leeuwen, B., & Földvári, P. (2016). Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.
Chicago van Leeuwen, Bas, and Peter Földvári. “Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History (2016).
Harvard van Leeuwen, B. and Földvári, P., 2016. Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.
Vancouver van Leeuwen B, Földvári P. Economic Mobility in a Colonial and Postcolonial Economy: Indonesia. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 2016 Jul 28.

The Changing Shape of Global Inequality 1820–2000; Exploring a New Dataset

when 2014
who Jan Luiten van Zanden

Joerg Baten

Péter Földvári

Bas van Leeuwen

what journal Review of Income and Wealth
what paper The Changing Shape of Global Inequality 1820–2000; Exploring a New Dataset
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

A new dataset for charting the development of global inequality between 1820 and 2000 is presented, based on a large variety of sources and methods for estimating (gross household) income inequality. On this basis we estimate the evolution of global income inequality over the past two centuries. Two sets of benchmarks about between-country inequality (the Maddison 1990 benchmark and the recent 2005 ICP round) are taken into account. We find that between 1820 and 1950, increasing per capita income is combined with increasing global inequality. After 1950, global inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient or the Theil index remains more or less constant. It also appears that the global income distribution was uni-modal in the nineteenth century, became increasingly bi-modal between 1910 and 1970 with two world wars, a depression and de-globalization, and was suddenly transformed back into a uni-modal distribution between 1980 and 2000.

keywords

economic development; inequality; output convergence; world

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/roiw.12014/full

citation format

MLA Zanden, Jan Luiten, et al. “The changing shape of global inequality 1820–2000; exploring a new dataset.” Review of Income and Wealth 60.2 (2014): 279-297.
APA Zanden, J. L., Baten, J., Foldvari, P., & Leeuwen, B. (2014). The changing shape of global inequality 1820–2000; exploring a new dataset. Review of Income and Wealth, 60(2), 279-297.
Chicago Zanden, Jan Luiten, Joerg Baten, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Leeuwen. “The changing shape of global inequality 1820–2000; exploring a new dataset.” Review of Income and Wealth 60, no. 2 (2014): 279-297.
Harvard Zanden, J.L., Baten, J., Foldvari, P. and Leeuwen, B., 2014. The changing shape of global inequality 1820–2000; exploring a new dataset. Review of Income and Wealth, 60(2), pp.279-297.
Vancouver Zanden JL, Baten J, Foldvari P, Leeuwen B. The changing shape of global inequality 1820–2000; exploring a new dataset. Review of Income and Wealth. 2014 Jun 1;60(2):279-97.

 

The development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932-2008

logo of Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies

when 2016
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
what journal Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies
what paper The development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932-2008
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

We estimate inequality in Indonesia between 1932 and 2008. Inequality increased at the start of this period but declined sharply from the 1960s onwards. The increase was due to a shift from domestic to export agriculture over the period up to the Great Depression. During the 1930s, as the price of export crops declined, the income of rich farmers suffered a blow. Yet this was counterbalanced by an increasing gap between expenditures in the urban and rural sectors, causing an overall rise in inequality. As for the second half of the century, we find that the employment shift towards manufacturing and services—combined with an increase in labour productivity in agriculture—accounts for inequality’s decline, which was halted in the 1990s. These inequality trends affected poverty as well, but prior to the 1940s the negative impact of the rise in inequality was offset by an increase in per capita GDP. Between 1950 and 1980 a decline in inequality, combined with increased per capita GDP, rapidly raised a large portion of the population above the poverty line.

keywords

inequalitypoverty, Indonesia

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Földvári, P. (2016). The Development of Inequality and Poverty in Indonesia, 1932–2008. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 52(3), 379-402.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies

Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870-2000

when 2014
who Péter Földvári

Bas van Leeuwen

what journal Cliometrica
what paper Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870-2000
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

In this paper, we revisit the relationship between educational and income inequalities in a historical perspective, using a newly developed annual dataset of average years of education in Europe. Theoretically one would expect a reduction in educational inequality should, given the positive correlation between education level and income, initially increase and then, at a later stage, reduce income inequality. Testing for such a Kuznets-type relationship between educational and income inequalities yields an unexpected result: we find the expected inverse U-curve before the 1950s, but the relationship changes into a normal U-curve afterward. We explain this observation by a change in the trend of skill premium during the second half of the twentieth century due to an increased relative demand for skills, which contradicts the usual assumption of decreasing returns to education. Due to lack of appropriate wage data, we cannot directly capture this effect. Yet, once we use an instrumental variable estimation method to filter out the effect of the omitted skill premium, the expected inverse U-curve also appears for the latter decades of the twentieth century.

keywords

Average years of education, Economic development, Inequality, Kuznets-curve

link to paper page of the journal website

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11698-013-0105-3

citation format

MLA
Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870–2000.” Cliometrica 8.3 (2014): 271-300.
APA
Földvári, P., & van Leeuwen, B. (2014). Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870–2000. Cliometrica, 8(3), 271-300.
Chicago Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870–2000.” Cliometrica 8, no. 3 (2014): 271-300.
Harvard Földvári, P. and van Leeuwen, B., 2014. Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870–2000. Cliometrica, 8(3), pp.271-300.
Vancouver Földvári P, van Leeuwen B. Educational and income inequality in Europe, ca. 1870–2000. Cliometrica. 2014 Sep 1;8(3):271-300.