Real wages since 1820

when 2014
who Pim de Zwart
Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Real wages since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where Paris
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

 

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

 

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Real wages since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 73-86). Paris: OECD Publishing.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Real wages since 1820

when 2014
who Pim de Zwart
Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Real wages since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where 巴黎
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Real wages since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 73-86). Paris: OECD Publishing.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Education since 1820

when 2014
who Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Education since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where Paris
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

 

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

 

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Education since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 87-100). Paris: OECD Publishing.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

Education since 1820

when 2014
who Bas van Leeuwen
Li Jieli
what chapter Education since 1820
what book How was life?: Global well-being since 1820
publisher OECD Publishing
where 巴黎
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Li Jieli
   

Book Description

How was life in 1820, and how has it improved since then? What are the long-term trends in global well-being? Views on social progress since the Industrial Revolution are largely based on historical national accounting in the tradition of Kuznets and Maddison. But trends in real GDP per capita may not fully re­flect changes in other dimensions of well-being such as life expectancy, education, personal security or gender inequality. Looking at these indicators usually reveals a more equal world than the picture given by incomes alone, but has this always been the case? The new report How Was Life? aims to fill this gap. It presents the first systematic evidence on long-term trends in global well-being since 1820 for 25 major countries and 8 regions in the world covering more than 80% of the world’s population. It not only shows the data but also discusses the underlying sources and their limitations, pays attention to country averages and inequality, and pinpoints avenues for further research.

The How Was Life? report is the product of collaboration between the OECD, the OECD Development Centre and the CLIO-INFRA project. It represents the culmination of work by a group of economic historians to systematically chart long-term changes in the dimensions of global well-being and inequality, making use of the most recent research carried out within the discipline. The historical evidence reviewed in the report is organised around 10 different dimensions of well-being that mirror those used by the OECD in its well-being report How’s Life? (www.oecd.org/howslife), and draw on the best sources and expertise currently available for historical perspectives in this field. These dimensions are:per capita GDP, real wages, educational attainment, life expectancy, height, personal security, political institutions, environmental quality, income inequality and gender inequality.

Book Contents

Preface  13
Acknowledgments 15
Readers’ Guide 17
Executive summary 19
Chapter 1. Global well-being since 1820 by Jan Luiten van Zanden, Joerg Baten, Marco Mira d’Ercole, Auke Rijpma, Conal Smith and Marcel Timmer 23
-Introduction 24
-Aim of this study 25
-Overview of indicators covered 27
-Data quality 29
Practical issues regarding country coverage 30
-Main highlights 31
-References 36
Chapter 2. Demographic trends since 1820 by Lotte van der Vleuten and Jan Kok 37
-Introduction 38
-Data quality 38
-World population 1820-2000: trends and trajectories 41
-Demographic transitions 46
-Implications of demographic change  51
-Priorities for future research 53
-References 53
Chapter 3. GDP per capita since 1820 by Jutta Bolt, Marcel Timmer and Jan Luiten van Zanden 57
-Introduction 58
-Description of the concepts used 58
-Historical sources 59
-Data quality 61
-Main highlights of GDP trends since 1820 64
-Priorities for future research 71
-References 72
Chapter 4. Real wages since 1820 by Pim de Zwart, Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li  73
-Introduction 74
-Description of the concepts used 75
-Historical sources 76
-Data quality 77
-Main highlights of wage trends 79
-Correlation with GDP per capita 83
-Priorities for future research 84
-References 85
Chapter 5. Education since 1820 by Bas van Leeuwen and Jieli van Leeuwen-Li 87
-Introduction 88
-Description of the concepts used 88
-Historical sources 89
-Data quality 91
-Main highlights of education trends  93
-Correlation with GDP per capita 97
-Priorities for future research 98
-References 98
Chapter 6. Life expectancy since 1820 by Richard L. Zijdema and Filipa Ribeiro de Silva 101
-Introduction 102
-Description of the concepts used 103
-Historical sources 104
-Data quality 104
-Main highlights of life expectancy trends 106
-Correlation with GDP per capita 110
-Priorities for future research  112
-References 114
Chapter 7. Human height since 1820 by Joerg Baten and Matthias Blum 117
-Introduction 118
-Description of the concepts used 119
-Historical sources 120
-Data quality 122
-Main highlights of human height trends 124
-Correlation with GDP per capita 128
-Priorities for future research 132
-References 134
Chapter 8. Personal security since 1820 by Joerg Baten, Winny Bierman, Peter Foldvari, and Jan Luiten van Zanden 139
-Introduction 140
-Description of the concepts used 141
-Historical sources 142
-Data quality 143
-Main highlights of trends in personal security 145
-Correlation with GDP per capita 154
-Priorities for future research 155
-References 157
Chapter 9. Political institutions since 1820 by Peter Foldvari and Katalin Buzasi 159
-Introduction 160
-Description of the concepts used 160
-Historical sources 162
-Data quality 163
-Main highlights of trends in political institutions 165
-Correlation with GDP per capita 173
-Priorities for future research 174
-References 176
Chapter 10. Environmental quality since 1820 by Kees Klein Goldewijk 179
-Introduction 180
-Description of the concepts used 181
-Historical sources 184
-Data quality 184
-Main highlights of trends in environmental quality 185
-Correlation with GDP per capita 194
-Priorities for future research 194
-References 196
Chapter 11. Income inequality since 1820 by 199
-Introduction 200
-Description of the concepts used 200
-Historical sources 202
-Data quality 204
-Main highlights of trends in income inequality  205
-Correlation with GDP per capita  210
-Priorities for future research 211
-References 212
Chapter 12. Gender inequality since 1820 by Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli and Auke Rijpma 217
-Introduction  218
-Description of the concepts used 220
-Historical sources 221
-Data quality  223
-Main highlights of trends in gender inequality  225
-Correlation with GDP per capita 239
-Priorities for future research 242
-References 245
Chapter 13. A composite view of well-being since 1820 by Auke Rijpma  249
-Introduction  250
-Description of the concepts used 254
-Main highlights of trends in composite indicators of human well-being 257
-Priorities for future research 267
-References 268

citation format

MLA
APA Van Leeuwen, B., & Jieli, L. (2014). Education since 1820. In J. Van Zanden, J. Baten, M. M. D’Ercole, A. Rijpma, C. Smith, & M. Timmer (Eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820 (pp. 87-100). Paris: OECD Publishing.
Chicago
Harvard
Vancouver

 

How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries

when 2012
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jieli van Leeuwen-Li
what journal The Economic History Review
what paper How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli
     

abstract

The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

keywords

 

citation format

MLA
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65.1 (2012): 304-313.
APA Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B., & Van Leeuwen‐Li, J. (2012). How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), 304-313.
Chicago
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65, no. 1 (2012): 304-313.
Harvard
Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B. and Van Leeuwen‐Li, J., 2012. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), pp.304-313.
Vancouver Földvári P, Van Leeuwen B, Van Leeuwen‐Li J. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review. 2012 Feb 1;65(1):304-13.

How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries

when 2012
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jieli van Leeuwen-Li
what journal The Economic History Review
what paper How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli
     

abstract

The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

keywords

citation format

MLA
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65.1 (2012): 304-313.
APA Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B., & Van Leeuwen‐Li, J. (2012). How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), 304-313.
Chicago
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65, no. 1 (2012): 304-313.
Harvard
Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B. and Van Leeuwen‐Li, J., 2012. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), pp.304-313.
Vancouver Földvári P, Van Leeuwen B, Van Leeuwen‐Li J. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review. 2012 Feb 1;65(1):304-13.

Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends

Economic History of Developing Regions

when 2017
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
Li Jieli
what journal Economic History of Developing Regions
what paper Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli

abstract

In recent decades it has been debated whether China’s growth performance is primarily driven by capital accumulation (more inputs) or rather by an increase in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth (better technology and institutions). The answer to this question may offer a glimpse into the future trends of China’s economic growth. If the perspiration factors are dominant, one should expect a slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy in accordance with the traditional Solow model. If, however, TFP growth drives per capita GDP growth, one can expect a strong convergence of China toward the technological frontier. In this paper we combine historical, long-term analysis with quantitative methods to find out whether the effect of (both human- and physical) capital and TFP on growth changed over the last 90 years. While partly relying on existing data, lack of information required us to estimate a new dataset on human capital for the provinces of China between 1922 and 2010 which allows us to decompose the observed economic growth into accumulation driven and TFP driven parts. We find that general technological development improved steadily over the course of the 1990s and 2000s.

keywords

Chinaeconomic developmenthuman capitaltechnology


citation format

MLA van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32.1 (2017): 1-36.
APA
van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J., & Foldvari, P. (2017). Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), 1-36.
Chicago van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32, no. 1 (2017): 1-36.
Harvard van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J. and Foldvari, P., 2017. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), pp.1-36.
Vancouver van Leeuwen B, van Leeuwen-Li J, Foldvari P. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions. 2017 Jan 2;32(1):1-36.

Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends

Economic History of Developing Regions

when 2017
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
Li Jieli
what journal Economic History of Developing Regions
what paper Human Capital in Republican and New China: Regional and Long-Term Trends
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli

abstract

In recent decades it has been debated whether China’s growth performance is primarily driven by capital accumulation (more inputs) or rather by an increase in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth (better technology and institutions). The answer to this question may offer a glimpse into the future trends of China’s economic growth. If the perspiration factors are dominant, one should expect a slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy in accordance with the traditional Solow model. If, however, TFP growth drives per capita GDP growth, one can expect a strong convergence of China toward the technological frontier. In this paper we combine historical, long-term analysis with quantitative methods to find out whether the effect of (both human- and physical) capital and TFP on growth changed over the last 90 years. While partly relying on existing data, lack of information required us to estimate a new dataset on human capital for the provinces of China between 1922 and 2010 which allows us to decompose the observed economic growth into accumulation driven and TFP driven parts. We find that general technological development improved steadily over the course of the 1990s and 2000s.

keywords

Chinaeconomic developmenthuman capitaltechnology


citation format

MLA van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32.1 (2017): 1-36.
APA
van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J., & Foldvari, P. (2017). Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), 1-36.
Chicago van Leeuwen, Bas, Jieli van Leeuwen-Li, and Peter Foldvari. “Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends.” Economic History of Developing Regions 32, no. 1 (2017): 1-36.
Harvard van Leeuwen, B., van Leeuwen-Li, J. and Foldvari, P., 2017. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions, 32(1), pp.1-36.
Vancouver van Leeuwen B, van Leeuwen-Li J, Foldvari P. Human capital in Republican and New China: regional and long-term trends. Economic History of Developing Regions. 2017 Jan 2;32(1):1-36.