Drivers of Industrialisation: Intersectoral Evidence from the Low Countries

 

when 2017
who Robin Philips
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Working Papers
what paper Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century.
language English

involved project member(s)

Robin Philips Peter Foldvari Bas van Leeuwen
   

abstract

In this paper, we trace the causes of regional industrial development in the nineteenth century Low Countries by disentangling the complex relationship between industrialisation, technological progress and human capital formation. We use sectoral differences in the application of technology and human capital as the central elements to explain the rise in employment in the manufacturing sector during the nineteenth century, and our findings suggest a re-interpretation of the deskilling debate. To account for differences among manufacturing sectors, we use population and industrial census data, subdivided according to their present-day manufacturing sector equivalents of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). Instrumental variable regression analysis revealed that employment in the manufacturing sector was influenced by so-called upper- tail knowledge and not by average educational levels, providing empirical proof of a so-called deskilling industrialisation process. However, we find notable differences between manufacturing sectors. The textiles and clothing sectors show few agglomeration effects and limited use of steam-powered engines, and average education levels cannot adequately explain regional industrialisation. In contrast, the location of the fast- growing and innovative machinery-manufacturing sector was more influenced by technology and the availability of human capital, particularly upper-tail knowledge captured by secondary school attendance rates.

keywords
industrialization; deskilling; human capital; steam engine; labour; economic growth

citation format

MLA
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century” (2017). MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
APA
Philips, R., Foldvari, P., and Van Leeuwen, B. (2017). Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Chicago
Robin Philips, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Harvard
Philips, R., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.
Vancouver
Philips, R., Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Drivers of industrialisation: intersectoral evidence from the Low Countries in the nineteenth century. MPRA Working Papers 83304, 1 – 25.

Where Do Ideas Come from?: The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present

when 2014
who Aurelian P. Plopeanu
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten Van Zanden
what journal European Journal of Science and Theology
what paper Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Recently, more and more use is made from book production as a measure of the long-run development of human capital. However, its relation with technology and growth is often found to be small and changing over time. In this paper we try to establish the link between book production and the spread of “ideas” as proxied by patents both over time and between regions. Two mechanisms may be distinguished. First, in the initial phase of economic development, the production of books may stimulate the accumulation of knowledge already present in society. After such an accumulation is complete, books may advance a common research focus within a certain geographic space. Indeed, applying this to the case of England, we find that books had a significant role on the number of patents during the second Industrial Revolution. However, when education became increasingly important, the role of books eventually broke down in the second half of the twentieth century. This pattern does not hold true for less developed regions where, due to the lack of efficient education, linguistic fragmentation, an overwhelmingly oral culture, and a structural different kind of knowledge, book production stagnated and no knowledge could be imported (for example, via translated books).

keywords

book production, patents, ideas, education, economic development

citation format

MLA
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., et al. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
APA
Plopeanu, A. P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2014). Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Chicago
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., Peter Foldvari, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
Harvard
Plopeanu, A.P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and Van Zanden, J.L., 2014. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Vancouver
Plopeanu AP, Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, Van Zanden JL. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present

when 2014
who Aurelian P. Plopeanu
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten Van Zanden
what journal European Journal of Science and Theology
what paper Where Do Ideas Come from? The Relation between Book Production and Patents from the Industrial Revolution to the Present
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Recently, more and more use is made from book production as a measure of the long-run development of human capital. However, its relation with technology and growth is often found to be small and changing over time. In this paper we try to establish the link between book production and the spread of “ideas” as proxied by patents both over time and between regions. Two mechanisms may be distinguished. First, in the initial phase of economic development, the production of books may stimulate the accumulation of knowledge already present in society. After such an accumulation is complete, books may advance a common research focus within a certain geographic space. Indeed, applying this to the case of England, we find that books had a significant role on the number of patents during the second Industrial Revolution. However, when education became increasingly important, the role of books eventually broke down in the second half of the twentieth century. This pattern does not hold true for less developed regions where, due to the lack of efficient education, linguistic fragmentation, an overwhelmingly oral culture, and a structural different kind of knowledge, book production stagnated and no knowledge could be imported (for example, via translated books).

keywords

book production, patents, ideas, education, economic development

citation format

MLA
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., et al. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
APA
Plopeanu, A. P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2014). Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Chicago
Plopeanu, Aurelian P., Peter Foldvari, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. “Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.” (2014).
Harvard
Plopeanu, A.P., Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and Van Zanden, J.L., 2014. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.
Vancouver
Plopeanu AP, Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, Van Zanden JL. Where do Ideas come from? The relation between book production and patents from the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.

 

Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.

 

An Estimation of the Human Capital Stock in Eastern and Central Europe

when 2005
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
what journal Eastern European Economics
what paper An Estimation of the Human Capital Stock in Eastern and Central Europe
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Using the method suggested by Dagum and Slottje (2000), this study estimates the value of national and per capita human capital for six Central and Eastern European countries: Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Estonia, Bulgaria, and Russia. The estimates are based on available household surveys for 1993, 1995, and 1997. The results indicate that the per capita human capital stock was much lower in Central and Eastern Europe than in the United States in 1982 as estimated by Dagum and Slottje. This paper also shows that the human capital estimates by the Dagum-Slottje method are subject to a sample selection bias, which can be corrected by the Heckman selection model.

keywords

 

citation format

MLA Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe.” Eastern European Economics 43.6 (2005): 53-65.
APA
Földvári, P., & Leeuwen, B. V. (2005). An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics, 43(6), 53-65.
Chicago
Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe.” Eastern European Economics 43, no. 6 (2005): 53-65.
Harvard
Földvári, P. and Leeuwen, B.V., 2005. An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics, 43(6), pp.53-65.
Vancouver
Földvári P, Leeuwen BV. An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics. 2005 Dec 1;43(6):53-65.

#logo or frontpage of the journal if a big picture#

An Estimation of the Human Capital Stock in Eastern and Central Europe

when 2005
who Bas van Leeuwen
Peter Foldvari
what journal Eastern European Economics
what paper An Estimation of the Human Capital Stock in Eastern and Central Europe
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Using the method suggested by Dagum and Slottje (2000), this study estimates the value of national and per capita human capital for six Central and Eastern European countries: Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Estonia, Bulgaria, and Russia. The estimates are based on available household surveys for 1993, 1995, and 1997. The results indicate that the per capita human capital stock was much lower in Central and Eastern Europe than in the United States in 1982 as estimated by Dagum and Slottje. This paper also shows that the human capital estimates by the Dagum-Slottje method are subject to a sample selection bias, which can be corrected by the Heckman selection model.

keywords

citation format

MLA Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe.” Eastern European Economics 43.6 (2005): 53-65.
APA
Földvári, P., & Leeuwen, B. V. (2005). An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics, 43(6), 53-65.
Chicago
Földvári, Péter, and Bas van Leeuwen. “An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe.” Eastern European Economics 43, no. 6 (2005): 53-65.
Harvard
Földvári, P. and Leeuwen, B.V., 2005. An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics, 43(6), pp.53-65.
Vancouver
Földvári P, Leeuwen BV. An estimation of the human capital stock in Eastern and Central Europe. Eastern European Economics. 2005 Dec 1;43(6):53-65.

#logo or frontpage of the journal if a big picture#

How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries

when 2012
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jieli van Leeuwen-Li
what journal The Economic History Review
what paper How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli
     

abstract

The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

keywords

 

citation format

MLA
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65.1 (2012): 304-313.
APA Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B., & Van Leeuwen‐Li, J. (2012). How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), 304-313.
Chicago
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65, no. 1 (2012): 304-313.
Harvard
Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B. and Van Leeuwen‐Li, J., 2012. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), pp.304-313.
Vancouver Földvári P, Van Leeuwen B, Van Leeuwen‐Li J. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review. 2012 Feb 1;65(1):304-13.

How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries

when 2012
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jieli van Leeuwen-Li
what journal The Economic History Review
what paper How did women count? A note on gender-specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Li Jieli
     

abstract

The role of human capital in economic growth is now largely uncontested. One indicator of human capital frequently used for the pre-1900 period is age heaping, which has been increasingly used to measure gender-specific differences. In this note, we find that in some historical samples, married women heap significantly less than unmarried women. This is still true after correcting for possible selection effects. A possible explanation is that a percentage of women adapted their ages to that of their husbands, hence biasing the Whipple index. We find the same effect to a lesser extent for men. Since this bias differs over time and across countries, a consistent comparison of female age heaping should be made by focusing on unmarried women.

keywords

citation format

MLA
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65.1 (2012): 304-313.
APA Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B., & Van Leeuwen‐Li, J. (2012). How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), 304-313.
Chicago
Földvári, Peter, Bas Van Leeuwen, and Jieli Van Leeuwen‐Li. “How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries.” The Economic history review 65, no. 1 (2012): 304-313.
Harvard
Földvári, P., Van Leeuwen, B. and Van Leeuwen‐Li, J., 2012. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review, 65(1), pp.304-313.
Vancouver Földvári P, Van Leeuwen B, Van Leeuwen‐Li J. How did women count? A note on gender‐specific age heaping differences in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. The Economic history review. 2012 Feb 1;65(1):304-13.

The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800

when 2013
who Péter Földvári
Bas van Leeuwen
Jan Luiten van Zanden
what journal De Economist
what paper The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari
   

abstract

Migration always played an important role in Dutch society. However, little quantitative evidence on its effect on economic development is known for the period before the twentieth century even though some stories exist about their effect on the Golden Age. Applying a VAR analysis on a new dataset on migration and growth for the period 1570–1800, we find that migration had a positive effect on factor accumulation during the whole period, and a positive direct effect on the per capita income during the Golden Age. This seems to confirm those studies that claim that the Dutch economy during its Golden Age at least partially benefitted from immigration.

keywords

Economic growth,Immigration,Holland,Endogenous development,Human capital

citation format

MLA
Foldvari, Peter, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800.” De Economist (2013): 1-18.
APA Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B., & van Zanden, J. L. (2013). The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist, 1-18.
Chicago Foldvari, Peter, Bas van Leeuwen, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800.” De Economist (2013): 1-18.
Harvard Foldvari, P., van Leeuwen, B. and van Zanden, J.L., 2013. The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist, pp.1-18.
Vancouver Foldvari P, van Leeuwen B, van Zanden JL. The Contribution of Migration to Economic Development in Holland 1570–1800. De Economist. 2013 Mar 1:1-8.