Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

Australian Economic History Review
when 2016
who Yi Xu
Zhihong Shi
Bas van Leeuwen
Yuping Ni
Zipeng Zhang
Ye Ma
what journal Australian Economic History Review
what paper Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933
language English

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi Zhang Zipeng
     

abstract

In recent decades, national income has become increasingly important as a measure of a nation’s economic health. In this study, we used a wide array of primary and secondary sources to arrive at values of the Chinese per capita gross domestic product during the period of 1661–1933. We found a persistent decline in the per capita gross domestic product between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, followed by a period of stagnation. This pattern, which shows up in many Asian countries, with the exception of Japan, provides a basis for improving our understanding of the patterns of global economic convergence and divergence.

keywords

China; growth; national income; Qing dynasty

link to paper page of the journal website

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aehr.12127/full

citation format

MLA Xu, Yi et al. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661–1933.” Australian Economic History Review, vol 57, no. 3, 2016, pp. 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
APA Xu, Y., Shi, Z., van Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., & Ma, Y. (2016). Chinese National Income, ca. 1661-1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), 368–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aehr.12127
Chicago Xu, Yi, Zhihong Shi, Bas van Leeuwen, Yuping Ni, Zipeng Zhang, and Ye Ma. 2016. “Chinese National Income, Ca. 1661-1933”. Australian Economic History Review 57 (3): 368–393. doi:10.1111/aehr.12127.
Harvard
Xu, Y., Shi, Z., Leeuwen, B., Ni, Y., Zhang, Z. and Ma, Y., 2017. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review, 57(3), pp.368-393.
Vancouver Xu Y, Shi Z, Leeuwen B, Ni Y, Zhang Z, Ma Y. Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933. Australian Economic History Review. 2017 Nov 1;57(3):368-93.

 

19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算

when 2013
who 徐毅

巴斯·范鲁文

what chapter 19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
what book 清史论丛 2013年号
publisher 中国广播电视出版社
where 北京
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

Book Description

《清史论丛(2013年号)》由中国社会科学院历史研究所清史研究室编写,主要内容包括:己庚旱灾及其政治影响、清代泥石流灾害刍议、李塨京师教馆考、试论南书房世家的形成原因、郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献、远方奇人与蛮夷之祸——明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识等内容。

Book Contents

许大龄师的为人与为学–纪念许大龄教授诞生90周年
清代泥石流灾害刍议
己庚旱灾及其政治影响
清朝地方社会治安文武分工协防体系考论
清中叶朝廷和基层旗人对满洲典礼的张扬,
史实在清代传记中的变异–佟国纲、华善奏请改隶满洲考辨
凌驷甲、乙之际事迹考辨
疆臣守土:汉军旗人蔡毓荣的“武功与文治”
李塨京师教馆考
汪端年谱
试论南书房世家的形成原因
论焦循与八股文
乾隆时期广西乡试舞弊案简述
乾隆时期连台本大戏演剧的宫廷化特色
学潮、学科与学制–光绪二十九年张之洞在京参与学务考
19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献
韩江雅集–清中叶士商互动的个案研究
所见、所闻、所传闻:《阅微草堂笔记》的采信分析
乾嘉学派中江藩的归属问题探析
《周益文忠公集》对清代辑佚学的贡献 –以朱彝尊《经义考》与四库馆臣《永乐大典》辑佚为例“
“以书经世”与“藏而为学”:管庭芬藏书思想刍议
13一17.世纪西方对中国人娱乐之认知
远方奇人与蛮夷之祸–明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识
《李安德日记》节译

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A re-estimation of mass literacy in China in the 19th century

when 2013
who Xu Yi

Bas van Leeuwen

what chapter A re-estimation of mass literacy in China in the 19th century (19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算)
what book Qing History Forum (清史论丛 2013年号)
publisher China Radio and Television Publishing House (中国广播电视出版社)
where Beijing
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Xu Yi
   

Book Description

《清史论丛(2013年号)》由中国社会科学院历史研究所清史研究室编写,主要内容包括:己庚旱灾及其政治影响、清代泥石流灾害刍议、李塨京师教馆考、试论南书房世家的形成原因、郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献、远方奇人与蛮夷之祸——明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识等内容。

Book Contents

许大龄师的为人与为学–纪念许大龄教授诞生90周年
清代泥石流灾害刍议
己庚旱灾及其政治影响
清朝地方社会治安文武分工协防体系考论
清中叶朝廷和基层旗人对满洲典礼的张扬,
史实在清代传记中的变异–佟国纲、华善奏请改隶满洲考辨
凌驷甲、乙之际事迹考辨
疆臣守土:汉军旗人蔡毓荣的“武功与文治”
李塨京师教馆考
汪端年谱
试论南书房世家的形成原因
论焦循与八股文
乾隆时期广西乡试舞弊案简述
乾隆时期连台本大戏演剧的宫廷化特色
学潮、学科与学制–光绪二十九年张之洞在京参与学务考
19世纪中国大众识字率的再估算
郝浴与银冈书院及其历史贡献
韩江雅集–清中叶士商互动的个案研究
所见、所闻、所传闻:《阅微草堂笔记》的采信分析
乾嘉学派中江藩的归属问题探析
《周益文忠公集》对清代辑佚学的贡献 –以朱彝尊《经义考》与四库馆臣《永乐大典》辑佚为例“
“以书经世”与“藏而为学”:管庭芬藏书思想刍议
13一17.世纪西方对中国人娱乐之认知
远方奇人与蛮夷之祸–明清之际士人社会对天主教的总体认识
《李安德日记》节译

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李成燕《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》读后

when 2012
who Liu Shangqiong
Xu Yi
what journal Trends of Recent Researches on the History of China (中国史研究动态)
what paper 李成燕《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》读后
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

李成燕博士的新著《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》已由中央民族大学出版社出版(2011年9月),全书33万字。是书具体研究了清雍正时期京畿一带的水利营田活动的起因、经过、结果,以及出现该结果的直接原

keywords

 

citation format

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李成燕《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》读后

when 2012
who 刘上琼
徐毅
what journal 中国史研究动态
what paper 李成燕《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》读后
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

李成燕博士的新著《清代雍正时期的京畿水利营田》已由中央民族大学出版社出版(2011年9月),全书33万字。是书具体研究了清雍正时期京畿一带的水利营田活动的起因、经过、结果,以及出现该结果的直接原

keywords

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《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》一书读后

when 2008
who Xu Yi
Liu Shangqiong
what journal Trends of Recent Researches on the History of China (中国史研究动态)
what paper 《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》一书读后
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

福建人民出版社2008年2月出版的史志宏先生的新著《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》,是经济史学界不多见的基础性成果。银库是清朝户部三大库藏中最重要的库藏,“为天下财赋总汇”,堪称当时封建王朝的“国库”。清中央政府以“京饷”的名义,将各省所征田赋、盐课、关税、杂税等项收入除去本省存留和省际协拨外全部集中于户部银库,用来开支京师的兵饷、官俸、役食及各项行政费用。研究清代中央财政,没有系统、长时段的银库收支数据支撑,仅凭记述性的历史记载或零散、片段的数字资料,是不可能做到十分详细和准确的。

keywords

 

citation format

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APA
Chicago
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《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》一书读后

when 2008
who 徐毅
刘上琼
what journal 中国史研究动态
what paper 《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》一书读后
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

福建人民出版社2008年2月出版的史志宏先生的新著《清代户部银库收支和库存统计》,是经济史学界不多见的基础性成果。银库是清朝户部三大库藏中最重要的库藏,“为天下财赋总汇”,堪称当时封建王朝的“国库”。清中央政府以“京饷”的名义,将各省所征田赋、盐课、关税、杂税等项收入除去本省存留和省际协拨外全部集中于户部银库,用来开支京师的兵饷、官俸、役食及各项行政费用。研究清代中央财政,没有系统、长时段的银库收支数据支撑,仅凭记述性的历史记载或零散、片段的数字资料,是不可能做到十分详细和准确的。

keywords

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刘祥学著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》读后

when 2014
who 朱海强
徐毅
what journal 中国史研究动态
what paper 刘祥学著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》读后
language 中文

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

近年来,作为一个新兴的交叉学科——民族历史地理学日益兴起。就某一具体民族而言,系统、深入研究其环境适应问题的研究成果并不多见。刘祥学新著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》(广西师范大学出版社,2013年9月版)以其对壮族这一典型个案的夯实研究为民族历史地理学的研究增添生色。是书除了导言外,共分为七章,民族学调查资料与地方史志资料相结合,依次讨论了壮族与其生存环境之间的紧密关系;宋代以来壮族空间分布格局的演变;壮族对水、林资源的利用; 

keywords

环境适应; 人地关系; 历史地理学; 地方史志; 空间分布格局; 调查资料; 生存环境; 交叉学科; 研究成果; 互动关系;

citation format

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Chicago
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刘祥学著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》读后

when 2014
who Zhu Haiqiang
Xu Yi
what journal Trends of Recent Researches on the History of China (中国史研究动态 )
what paper 刘祥学著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》读后
language Chinese

involved project member(s)

Xu Yi
 

abstract

近年来,作为一个新兴的交叉学科——民族历史地理学日益兴起。就某一具体民族而言,系统、深入研究其环境适应问题的研究成果并不多见。刘祥学新著《壮族地区人地关系过程中的环境适应研究》(广西师范大学出版社,2013年9月版)以其对壮族这一典型个案的夯实研究为民族历史地理学的研究增添生色。是书除了导言外,共分为七章,民族学调查资料与地方史志资料相结合,依次讨论了壮族与其生存环境之间的紧密关系;宋代以来壮族空间分布格局的演变;壮族对水、林资源的利用; 

keywords

环境适应; 人地关系; 历史地理学; 地方史志; 空间分布格局; 调查资料; 生存环境; 交叉学科; 研究成果; 互动关系;

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Human Capital in Qing China: Economic Determinism or a History of Failed Opportunities?

when 2013
who Xu Yi
Peter Foldvari
Bas van Leeuwen
what journal MPRA Paper
what paper Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?
language 英文

involved project member(s)

Bas van Leeuwen Peter Foldvari Xu Yi
     

abstract

The traditional education system in Qing China has been widely debated over the past decades. Some have argued it was efficient and furthered economic growth, while others have stressed its inefficient nature, which led to the introduction of the modern education system in the closing decades of the 19th century, followed by its total collapse in 1905. In this paper we make a first try to quantify above debate. Starting from the observation that below the well-known civil examination system there existed a whole system of popular and vocational education, we find that years of education in the population were still lower than in many European countries. More interestingly, whereas in European countries years of education increased strongly in the 19th century, our estimates of average years of education and the ABCC indices show that the level of education remained stable well into the 1920s when it accelerated. However, the main rise only occurred during the late 20th century. This finding leads to an interesting question since per capita income only started to grow significantly since the 1950s. This means that the rise of education since the mid-1920s was not as such driven by per capita income. Apparently this was the same for both the traditional and modern education since the latter had already started to transform Chinese education from the 1890s onwards. Hence, we have to look at the question why persons decided to follow education, i.e. was it individually profitable to follow education (positive private returns)? However, testing for this latter hypothesis shows that, after correction for foregone earnings, life expectancy, and probability of passing the exams, only the below shengyuan level students actually had positive returns. For an ordinary person it was therefore uneconomical to join in the civil examination system. Apparently this did not change, not even after the introduction of the modern education system, until the 1950s.

keywords

human capital; China, private returns; economic development

citation format

MLA
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
APA
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P., & Van Leeuwen, B. (2013). Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Chicago
Xu, Yi, Peter Foldvari, and Bas Van Leeuwen. “Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.” (2013).
Harvard
Xu, Y., Foldvari, P. and Van Leeuwen, B., 2013. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.
Vancouver
Xu Y, Foldvari P, Van Leeuwen B. Human capital in Qing China: economic determinism or a history of failed opportunities?.